Class Notes (809,125)
Canada (493,536)
Psychology (6,025)

Week 5- Chapter 4- Anxiety, Obsessive- Compulsive, and Trauma- and Stressor- Related Disorders.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 4 Anxiety, Obsessive- Compulsive, and Trauma- and Stressor- Related Disorders -->does it cause dysfunction for the person -->does it cause distress (depressed, unhappy) -->if not, then it's not a disorder What is Anxiety? -Acommon emotion characterized by physical symptoms, future-oriented thoughts [not right now but what will happen tomorrow or in 5 minute time], and escape or avoidance behaviors (=worry) -Occurs when people encounter a new situation or anticipate a life-changing event [can deal with it but some help/therapy may be needed] -Usually time-limited and ends when the event is over -Cognitive symptoms = subjective distress Fight- or- Flight Response -Activation of the SNS (sympathetic nervous system) triggered by fear or stress -Sympathetic nervous system (SNS): -increases heart rate and respiration -Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS): -slows down the heart rate and respiration -In textbook (Just how it works…) -In textbook (Figure 4.3- Negative Reinforcement IncreasesAvoidance Behavior andAnxiety) -->Phobia = negative reinforcement (ie. Flying, spiders) -->keeps the thought going NormalAnxiety (worry) vs. AbnormalAnxiety -Feeling anxious occasionally is normal -Functional impairment -Developmental age (little kid = separation anxiety that parents may not come back --> not natural if a 30yr old experience that) -->as age increases, natural anxiety should decrease -Cognitive development, not actual chronological age -In textbook (Table 4.1- Common Fears at Various DevelopmentalAge) Anxiety Disorders -Group of disorders- heightened physical arousal, cognitive distress (worry), and behavioral avoidance of feared objects/ situations/ events -woman more than men -woman hold it in and men find objects (ie. Punching bag) -Comorbidity- coexist with other disorders -57% of people diagnosed with one anxiety disorder also have another anxiety disorder or depression Anxiety Disorders -31.2% of American adults will suffer at some point in their lives -->not enough sleep, lack of exercise, overeating, under eating, avoid stress, coping, obese -Most common disorder among all age groups -Onset is around age 11 years old -Significant economic burden: $42.3 billion PanicAttacks -Discrete period of intense fear and physical arousal, which develops abruptly -->weird symptoms occur (hyperventilating) -->don't know how; very frightening; symptoms occur within minutes -Symptoms peak in about ten minutes -Somatic [body] (rapid heart rate) and cognitive symptoms (ie. OMG I'm dying) PanicAttacks -Four types -Expected (situationally bound or situationally cued) -Unexpected (ie. Hits unexpectedly; out of the blue) -With agoraphobia (agoraphobia = fear of wide open spaces) -Without agoraphobia (have an attack not in an open space but have nowhere to go) Agoraphobia -Fear of the market place (open spaces) -Fear of embarrassment -Can sometimes enter fear situations with trusted companions -Usually begins in early adulthood -Women are more likely to experience agoraphobia -->these people have no control Panic Disorder -At least one panic attack -Know how it feels and keeps thinking that they have it GeneralizedAnxiety Disorder (GAD) -->more so than normal worry -->interfere with functioning -Excessive worry about future events, past transgressions, financial status, and the health of oneself and loved ones -Lasts at least six months -Onset late teens early adulthood (20s) -more responsibility -Common in lower SES (education + money) -More likely to occur in adults than children -->kids live in the now -->worry is about the past and the future -Worries are more severe; muscle tension, feeling restless, & being on edge, insomnia SocialAnxiety Disorder -Third most common disorder -Pervasive pattern of social timidity & fear that one will behave in a humiliating or embarrassing way (ie. Fear of spilling beer all over another person; public speaking and then tripping over a chair) -Intense fear that others will detect as anxiety -Occur in social situations that create distress: speaking, eating, drinking, or writing in the presence of others, social interactions and initiating conversations -Avoid these situations (so then negative reinforced- never gets resolved) Specific Phobias -->severe irrational fear (ie. Flying, mice)- doesn't matter what you know -Severe and persistent fears of specific events, objects, or situations, that led to significant disruption in areas of functioning -Four Groups -Animal phobias (ie. Birds) -Natural environment phobias (ie. Heights, storms- lightning) -Situational phobias (not social stuff) -Blood/injection/injury phobias (vasovagal syncope) = parasympathetic system activation (ie. Watching someone get a needle or blood drawn) -syncope = faint -In textbook - Figure 4.5 (Vasovagal Response in Blood/ Injection/ Injury Phobias -In textbook- Figure 4.4 Percentage ofAdults with a Specific Phobia Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder -Obsessions (intrusive thoughts-distressful), often with -Compulsions (repetitive behaviors/ rituals- negative reinforcement) Is Trichotillomania (Trich) (T
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2030A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.