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Week 7- Chapter 6 - Bipolar & Depressive Disorders.docx
Week 7- Chapter 6 - Bipolar & Depressive Disorders.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 6- Bipolar & Depressive Disorder -Mood disorders (change in the way we feel) Bipolar Disorder -Used be called manic depressive -Episodic depressed mood and episodic mania -Mood shifts between two emotional "poles" (ends of a continuum) -Long-term illness -Categories -Bipolar I (full blown mania alternates with episodes of major depression) -Bipolar II (hypomania mood elevation that is abnormal yet not severe enough to impair functioning or require hospitalization) DSM-5: Manic Episode -Aperiod of abnormal elevated or irritable mood lasting for at least one week or requires hospitalization -Three or more of the following: inflated self-esteem, decrease need for sleep, talkativeness, flight of ideas, distractibility, and increased goal-directed activity -Figure 6.1 the different types of bipolar illness Developmental Factors in Bipolar Disorder -Children: mania may be chronic (irritability and temper tantrums) -Difficulty in differentiating bipolar disorder fromADHD, conduct disorder, ODD, and schizophrenia -After 60, mania and depression symptoms result from medical illness especially stroke Epidemiology of Bipolar Disorder -Less common than major depression -Unrelated to race, sex, age and family income -Comorbidities -- anxiety disorder, substance abuse disorder Cyclothymic Disorder -Have fluctuations that alternative between hypomania and depression -Episodes not as severe as with mania or major depression -Persist for at least 2 years Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) -Persistent sad or low mood -- impairs one's interest in or ability to engage in normally enjoyable activities -Disturbance in psychological, emotional, social, and physical functioning -Sense of hopelessness and helplessness -Episodic illness (single episode lasts 2 weeks to several months; can be recurrent) -Figure 6.2 – The different forms of depressive disorders Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia) -Achronic state of depression -The symptoms: same as major depression, but less severe -Persistent, lasting 2+ years and never without symptoms for more than two months -Severe outcomes (social isolation, high suicide risk, and mislabelled as moody or difficult) -Double depression = MDD + Dysthymia -Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (more severe than normal) [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] Epidemiology of Depression -Most common psychological disorder worldwide (& seems to be increasing – Not eating well? Lack of exercise? Stress?) -Prevalence rates: -Major Depression: around 35 million U.S. adults -Dysthymia: 2.5% of general population Sex, Race & Ethnicity -Women have 2x the risk compared to men (males tend to act out more when they are angry, depressed where women internalize their feelings) -Impact of reproductive events (postpartum depression) -Common in lower SES -Impact of unemployment and lack of education and financial resources Developmental Factors in Depression -Between the ages of 18-43 -Typical onset occurring at the age of 30 (Not achieving your expectations for yourself?) -Typical warning signs: headaches, muscle aches, stomach aches, tiredness, absent from school, decrease in performance (in school), and any drastic changes in mood/behaviour -In childhood, both boys & girls are equally affected -After adolescence, rates of depression increases for girls (2:1) Comorbidity Factors -Medical conditions -72.1% of people with MDD had additional disorders -59.2% had an anxiety disorder -24% substance abuse disorders -30% impulse disorders -Genetic & environmental factors Etiology of Bipolar/Depressive Disorders -Biological -Genetics: linkage (narrows the search down to specific chromosomes) & association (look at the genes that are more common in those that have the disorder vs. those that don’t) studies, family studies (family history) -Neuroimaging: amygdala (memory & emotion), orbitofrontal cortex (cognition, decision making), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (planning) and anterior cin
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