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Week 10- Chapter 10- Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders.docx

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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

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Chapter 10: Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders Psychotic Disorders -Characterized by unusual thinking, distorted perceptions, and odd behaviours -Psychosis- loss of contact with reality -Delusion- a false belief -can be caused by brain tumor -Hallucination- a false sensory perception *Just because a person have hallucination and delusion does not mean that they have Schizophrenia—more then just that (DSM) What is Schizophrenia? -Severe psychological disorder—disorganization in thought, perception, and behavior -Emil Kraepelin- Dementia praecox =Premature dementia -Dementia (pervasive disturbances of perceptual and cognitive faculties) -Praecox (early life onset) -Schizophrenia vs. DID Schizophrenia in Depth: Positive Symptoms -Unusual thoughts, feelings, and behaviors- absent in healthy people -Persecutory delusions & delusions of influence -thought people were after them and take him away -ex. roommate trying to poison him with gas (persecutory delusions) -ex. wear tinfoil hat so that people can’t read his thought (delusions of influence) -Hallucinations- verbal (see), auditory (hear), olfactory (smell), somatic (sense), gustatory (taste) -Presence does not always = schizophrenia -Loose associations -little or no link from one idea to the next -affect the way they think and talk -Though blocking -long pauses in speech -disturbance in normal though process -Clang associations -words that sound alike -ex. over the hill and pay the bills -Table 10.1 (Types of Delusions and Hallucinations found in People With Schizophrenia) Schizophrenia in Depth: Negative Symptoms -Behaviors, emotions, or thought processes that are absent in people with schizophrenia -Blunted affect -No emotions/ expressions on face -Anhedonia -No capacity for pleasure -Avolition -No motivation -ex. sit and do nothing -Alogia -speech is poor -ex. something have trouble hearing them or understanding them -poor speech and poor quantity; don’t talk much -Psychomotor retardation -slow -Cognitive impairments -don’t think clearly -lack of thinking -hard time learning -hard time memory things -hard time switching ideas, concentrating -Social cognition -hard time understanding social interactions -ex. up to your face and ask you your personal questions -can’t have positive relationships -Echolalia -repeating what everyone says Functional Impairment of Schizophrenia -Symptom severity equals the level of impairment -Significant human toll on the individual and the family (quality of life) -Cultural factors -Schizophrenic can’t stand pressure -Higher risk of being victims & perpetrators of violence Epidemiology of Schizophrenia -Prevalence rates averages 1% of general population -Acute or gradual onset -Prodromal phase (social withdrawal or deterioration in hygiene) -don’t bathe, don’t change their clothes -Acute phase (starts to exhibit positive symptoms) -Residual phase (psychotic symptoms are no longer present by negative symptoms remain) Sex, Race, Ethnicity, and Development -Women (develop at a later age and have milder forms) -Hormonal and sociocultural implications -estrogen might affect brain development -Symptoms common across racial and ethnic groups -Developmental factors -Significantly less social when 11 to 13 years old -Early- onset schizophrenia- develops prior to 18 -Lose more cortical gray matter over 5 years -Only 8 to 20% achieve full remission Ethics and Responsibility -Racial bias a factor in the diagnosis -Determine diagnosis based solely on a person’s symptoms without knowing culture, race -Lack of cultural competence among clinicians -Language barriers -Few bilingual therapists -Inaccurate diagnosis may r
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