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Week 13- Chapter 14- Health Psychology.docx

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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

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April 17 1hr 50 minutes 80 MC Chapter 14 (textbook material only) Chapter 14: Health Psychology 14.1 Health Psychology Defining the Field -New area in psychology -Early 1900s -People died mainly from acute diseases- TB, small pox -1950 -situation changed -improved in sanitation, nutrition and vaccines -Reason for dying changed- infectious disease to chronic -respiratory disease, stroke -Chronic = with you for life -Can treat but still progresses -Lifestyle diseases -Everyday behaviours puts us at risk for these diseases -Health Psychology = How they be healthy, become ill and how they react -Health Psychologist = Maintaining good health and treating illnesses -Biopsychosocial approach -WHO definition of health (1948) in textbook -Physical, Mental and Social Well-being -All interrelated -Not just the absence of disease -Overlap great QOL (ill/ healthy) -Coping quite well -Health intervention should promote health and one step to promote flourishing 14.2 The Mind-Body Relationship -Early times: mind and body were separated -Later: they are separate entities but do interact (dualism) -Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud: Studies on Hysteria (1949??) -The mind can influence the body -Hysteria = conversion disorder -All diseases are influenced by psychological factors -Dualism- have psychological consequence from physical problems -have physical consequences from psychological problems 14.3 The Role of Stress in Physical and Mental Health -Stress – psychological -cause = stressors -depends on how you interpret the event -AIDS, Cardiovascular Problems, Chronic Pain, Cancer (diagram in textbook) 1. Psychological factors (such as negative emotions and stress) disrupt basic biological processes, which may lead to physical disorders and diseases -Stress + Lack of Control  Self 2. “Risky” behaviours causes or contribute to a variety of physical disorders and disease -Smoking, drinking, poor eating habits, no exercise adaptive for short term; immediate effect (immediate reward) long-term becomes maladaptive -In textbook -Event  PrimaryAppraisal (harm- damage, threat-future damage, challenge)  SecondaryAppraisal (Are my resources sufficient)  Yes (Not a stress)/ No (High Stress) -Room for changing the appraisal (Reappraisal) if there are new information -Happens after secondary appraisal -Coping Processes -How do they do about the problem -2 strategies for coping: -problem-focused coping: person copes to attempt to take action directly to change the stressful event; tackling the problem; concretely to tackle the problem -emotion-focused coping: attempts to manage the emotions evoked by the event; nothing is done concretely; through the use of emotion (smoking, exercising, relaxation and meditation) -use a little bit of each depending on the problem and timing -will have a natural preference (for one or the other); preferred style -recognize each person’s uniqueness; cope differently -Social Support -Tangible: do things to help someone out -Informational: provide them with knowledge -Emotional support: there to listen to them and give them comfort, reassurance, listened to and understood -Should match the patients need -When social support is not enough, stress management programs (1.Learn what stress is and what the stresses are in own life. 2.Learn and practice coping skills- time management, good health habits, and social skills. 3. Apply these skills now) development are available to help with coping -Overall goal: intensity and length of stressful experience, prevent it from affecting physical and emotional illnesses (genetically susceptible to: depression, high BP) -Make use of healthcare resources 14.4 The Impact of Stress on Health -in textbook -Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis: -Hypothalamus  Releasing factor Anterior Pituitary ACTH (through blood) Adrenal Cortex Cortisol -Fight/ Flight Re
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