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Chapter 12

Course Code
David Vollick

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Chapter 12-personality disorders
o Enduring and relatively stable predispositions (ie. Ways of relating and thinking)
5 factor model:
o Agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness (trying to do a good job or not, keep your word), neuroticism (negative
emotions), openness to experience
Personality disorders:
o Predispositions are inflexible and maladaptive, causing distress and/or impairment
o Coded on axis II of the DSM-IV-TR
Categorical vs. dimensional views of personality disorders
Facts and stats:
o About 0.5% to 2.5% of the general population (US)Canadian data is scarce
Origins and course of personality disorders:
o Thought to begin in childhoodfew studies on developmentnot seek treatment in early stages
o Tend to run a chronic course unless treated (poor outcome even when treated)
o Co-morbidity (with other psychological disorders): rates are higher (poorer prognosis)
o Gender bias in diagnosis:
Gender differences may be due to bias on the part of the diagnosing clinician-may be due to society’s bias
against feminine traits
Paranoid personality disorder:
o Overview and clinical features:
Pervasive and unjustified mistrust and suspicion
o The causes:
Biological and psychological contributions unclear
Early learning that ppl in the world is a dangerous place
o Treatment options:
Few seek professional help on their own
Treatment focuses on development of trust, this therapy needs to be long term (> 1 year)
Cognitive therapy to counter negativistic thinking
No evidence of treatment success
Schizoid personality disorder:
o Pervasive pattern of detachment in interpersonal situations
o Limited range of emotions in interpersonal situations
o Normal behaviour, beliefs, and thought patterns vs. paranoid and schizotypal
o The causes: etiology is unclear
o Treatment options:
Few seek professional help on their own
Focus on the value of interpersonal relationships, empathy, and social skills
Treatment prognosis generally poornot motivated
Lack good outcomes studiesre: treatment efficacy
Schizotypal personality disorder:
o Overview and clinical features:
Behaviour and dress if odd and unusual
Most are socially isolated and may be highly suspicious of others—may have the feeling someone’s in the
room vs. schizophrenic who9 strongly believes there is (when no one is)
Magical thinking, ideas of reference (but sense they are unreal), and illusions are common, but sense that are
Risk for developing a schizophrenia is high
Many also meet criteria for major depression
o The causes:
Schizoid personalitya phenotype of a schizophrenia genotype?
Left hemisphere and more generalized brain deficits
o Treatment options:
Main focus is on developing social skills
Treatment also addresses and comorbid depression
Medical treatment is similar to that used for schizophrenia (ie. Antipsychotics)
Treatment prognosis is generally poor
Antisocial personality disorder (APD):
o Overview and clinical features:
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