Psychology 2030A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Grey Matter, Executive Functions, Dementia Praecox

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CH 10: Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Psychotic Disorders
-Characterized by unusual thinking, distorted perceptions, and odd behaviors
-Some of the psychotic disorders are serious and chronic, while others are temporary states of confusion
- Psychosis  A severe mental condition characterized by a loss of contact with reality
-Takes the form of a or both:
oDelusion  A false belief
oHallucination  A false sensory perception
-Psychotic experiences such as delusional thinking and hallucinations may also occur in people with physical
-A severe psychological disorder characterized by disorganization in thought, perception, and behavior
-Emil Kraepelin  He saw schizophrenia has dementia praecox
-Dementia  Pervasive disturbances of perceptual and cognitive faculties
-Praecox (early life onset)
-Schizophrenia is not similar to DID (identity disorder)
-Bleuker focused on four core symptoms of the disorder: Ambivalence, Disturbances of a*ect, Disturbance of
association, and preference for fantasy over reality
Schizophrenia in Depth: Positive Symptoms
-Group of symptoms including unusual thoughts, feelings and behaviors  Absent in healthy people
- Persecutory delusions  Belief that someone is harming or attempting to harm the person
oDelusions of inuence  Believe that others control ones behavior or thoughts
-Ppl with schizophrenia often believe that their thoughts are being manipulated by processes known as thought
withdrawal, thought broadcasting, or thought insertion
- Hallucinations  Verbal, auditory, olfactory, somatic, gustatory
-Presence does not always = Schizophrenia
- Loose associations  thoughts that have no logical connection to the next thought
- Thought blocking  Long pauses in the patients speech that occur during a conversation
- Clang association  Speech is governed by words that sound alike rather than words that have meaning
- Catatonia  Person is awake but is nonresponsive to external stimuli
- Waxy exibility  parts of the body remain frozen in a particular posture when positioned that way by another
Schizophrenia in Depth: Negative Symptoms
-Behaviors, emotions, or thought processes that are absent in people with schizophrenia
-Diminished emotional expression, anhedonia, avolition or apathy, alogia, and psychomotor retardation
- Anhedonia  refers to a lack of capacity for pleasure (feel no joy or pleasure)
- Avolition  inability to initiate or follow through on plans
- Alogia  Decreased quality or quantity of speech
- Psychomotor retardation  slowed mental or physical activity
-Negative symptoms are treatment resistant and restrict the persons ability to hold a job, school, DAL
- Cognitive impairments  De2cits in visual and verbal leaning and memory, inability to pat attention, decreased
speed on info processing, impaired abstract reasoning and executive functioning
- Social Cognition  inability to perceive social nuances and engage in basic conversations
-To be diagnosed it requires the presence of symptoms from each of the three categories:
- Echolalia  repeating verbatim what others say that is purposeless in nature
- Self-medication hypothesis  Patients with both schizophrenia and substance use disorders have fewer
negative symptoms
Functional Impairment of Schizophrenia
-Positive correlation b/w severity of symptoms and the ability of the person to function
-Coexisting depression increases that chance of a overall poor overall outcome
-Signi2cant human toll on the individual and the family (QOL)
-Poorer general physical health and excessive medical morbidity
-Cultural factors  positive outcomes are more often found in developing countries due to more social support
oDi*erences in social structure
oThe more central role of the family in caring for psychiatrically ill patient and di*ering beliefs in etiology
-Higher risk of being victims and perpetrators of violence
-Violence committed is lower than individuals with depression and bipolar illness
-Ppl with schizophrenia are at risk fro victimization by others. They often live in unsafe conditions, and their
cognitive impairments make them easy targets
-Executive functioning, memory and attention are needed to do daily activities which are lacked in patients
Ethics and Responsibility
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