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Lecture 7

lecture 7 of psych 2035

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Week 7 November 12, 2012 Cognitive, Moral and Psychosocial Development Part One: Cognitive Development -*Jean Piaget*: trained as a biologist, worked part time with kids at Binet Institute (developing new IQ test); became intrigued by kids‟ mistakes on reasoning tasks revealed how cognitive abilities develop Piaget‟s Theory of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage (age 0-2 years): infants can‟t represent objects in thought (can only respond to what they see, hear, touch – experience with their senses. Also lack an understanding of object permanence that objects continue to exist when they can‟t be seen) 2. Preoperational Stage (age 2-7): begin to use language (representational thought = words represent things); understanding of concepts is weak (abstract ideas about what a group of objects has in common); difficulty making depictions between similar things cats/squirrels; tend to rely on ONE property to define concepts; also engage in “animistic” thinking (if an object moves it must be alive); Piaget asked child if sun was alive because it moved and the answer was yes; thinking also tends to be „egocentric‟ = perceive the world in terms of their own perspective (why is the sky blue – bc its my fav colour); kids often assume other people see world as they do (leave out important background information – what‟s this?!); also lack firm grasp of „cause-effect relations‟ (eg. will a bike work if you remove the chain?); also assume that the „effect‟ is the „cause‟ (eg. Why does the sun go down? Bc I go to sleep / Why did Timmy fall off his bike? Bc he broke his arm); ***children don‟t understand logical rules or logical operations (eg. “Conservation” – properties of an object are conserved even if you change the shape of the object // conservation of liquid = tall glass has more water than short glass /// conservation of substance = amount of clay in ball form then sausage form ///conservation of numbers = don‟t understand that if 2+3=5, then 3+2=5) -video 5 yr old cant distinguish conservation but 7 yr old can = end of stage 2 3. Concrete Operations Stage (age 7-12): can perform logical operations on „concrete‟ events (not on abstract or hypothetical events), eg. if add 1 to an even number we always get an odd number = understand this only for numbers they‟ve had concrete experience with 4. Formal Operations Stage (age 12 throughout adulthood): can reason about abstract, hypothetical events (can think in terms of what is and what might be); some adults don‟t really make it to this stage, they are very literal/don‟t get jokes Part Two: Moral Development -Moral issue: is it morally right or wrong to assist someone in suicide? According to Kohlberg, the act itself is neither moral nor immoral; the morality of an act depends on the resonating behind the act. -Three basic levels of moral reasoning‟s each with two stages Kohlberg‟s Theory Level 1 “Pre Conventional Morality” (prior to age of 10): decisions about right/wrong are based on consequences of behaviour Stage One – Punishment Orientation >> if behaviour leads punishment then its wrong Stage Two – Reward Orientation >> if behaviour leads to reward then its right Level 2 “Conventional Morality” (age 10 -??): decisions about right/wrong are based on „convention‟ what other people say Stage Three – Good-Person Orientation >> moral behaviour gains approval and avoids disapprova
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