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Lecture

Sex and Gender Lecture

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2035A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood

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Psychology 2035A Sex and Gender Chapter Eleven October 21 , 2013 Part One: Reproductive Biology Prenatal Sexual Differentiation Begins at conception (sperm fertilizes egg) Mother’s Egg (“x” sex chromosome) Father’s Sperm (“X” or “Y” sex chromosome) - if X sperm fertilizes egg: genetic female (XX) - if Y sperm fertilizes egg: genetic male (XY)  A. The Genetic Factor- the first step towards being a male or female B. The Gonadal Factor (development of reproductive organs: testes or ovaries) - depends on Y chromosome: - if present, it a) stimulates development of the testes; b) inhibits the development of ovaries Problems: “True Hermaphrodites”: - Genetic female (XX); with tiny piece of Y chromosome attached (XXy); - Big enough to stimulate development of testes, not big enough to inhibit development of ovaries (therefore BOTH) C. The Hormonal Factor (development of sex organs: penis or clitoris and vagina) - Testes produce large quantities of androgens - when androgens are present, penis develops; (the Adam principle) - when absent, clitoris and vagina develop (the Eve principle) Problems: a) The Adrenogenital syndrome: - Genetic female with unusually active adrenal glands (produce androgens); - Fetus develops sex organs that appear to be “male” (clitoris is enlarged, vagina is fused) - - this is a pseudohermaphrodite b) Androgen-insensitivity syndrome: - genetic male with normal testes that produce normal levels of androgens; - but body is insensitive to androgens; -  sex organs have “female” appearance (looks like a vagina, but lacks depth; penis looks like clitoris; testes remain up inside the body) If everything goes as planned, you are now a biological “male” or “female” (prenatal sexual differentiation is complete) But, for the next decade, you can’t reproduce. D. The Puberty Factor (involves hormones) - girls (age 10-12); boys (age 12-14) a) Development of secondary sex characteristics: Boys and girls: pubic hair, growth spurt Girls: breast development Boys: facial hair, deeper voice, larger penis b) Gonads (reproductive organs) mature: - menstruation in girls (mature eggs are released from ovaries); - the first ejaculation in boys (production of mature sperm from testes). Part Two: Our Two Basic Identities 1) Sexual Identity (whether you are biologically male or female), 2) Gender Identity (perception of self as “male” or “female”; beliefs about what it means to be male or female).  “Gender Roles” (expectations about how males and females should behave).  Given to you by society - Nearly every society expects males and females to be different - Our society is no exception Consider “gender stereotypes”: -What are the characteristics of the average “man” and “woman” in our society? Women: “The Communal Dimension” (aka: expressive, socially-oriented, feminine) - E.g. caring, nurturing, affectionate, helpful Men: The “Agentic Dimension” (aka: instrumental, task-oriented, masculine) - E.g. aggressive, dominant, independent, self-reliant A father and his son are involved in a car accident and both are seriously injured and sent to different hospitals, the boy is prepared for surgery but then the surgeon said “I cannot operate on this patient, he is my son”. Two Questions: a) Are these gender stereotypes accurate? - They contain a “kernel of truth” (see fig 11.7, p 345) b) Where do these differences come from? Why are women more communal and men more agentic? - Might depend on biology (see text, p 346-348)  Also depends on how we are socialized (must learn to be males and females). Part Three: Gender-Role Socialization (p 350-353) A. The role of Parents: - They perceive baby boys and baby girls differently; - In a study: first time parents were interviewed within 24 hours after birth, o Baby girls: softer, smaller, more finely featured o Baby boys: stronger, sturdier, better coordinated - Parents were shown a video tape of a nine month old infant, half were told a it was a girl, half were told it was a boy- their perceptions were affected by their belief, when a jack in the box popped out and the infant beg
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