Gender is the state of being male or female . Gender stereotypes are widely shared beliefs about males" and females" abilities, personality traits, and social behavior . Instrumentality an orientation toward action and accomplishment, refers to masculine traits. Expressiveness an orientation toward emotion and relationships, refers to feminine traits. This is called androcentrism, or the belief that the male is the norm. " Meta-analysis combines the statistical results of many studies of the same questions, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of the variable"s effects" The gender similarities hypothesis states: men and women are similar on most psychological variables, when there are differences, they are small, exaggerated differences create costs in the workplace and in relationships. Mathematical abilities: recent large meta-analyses show there are no longer gender differences in general mathematical performance or achievement, exceptions to the findings, males have a more positive attitude toward math.