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Lecture 2: Theories of Personality

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

LECTURE 2 – THEORIES OF PERSONALITY September 13, 2010 Psychodynamic and Trait  People have different personalities  Personality: individual differences that are stable over time and consistent across situations Origin of Personality: (see textbook) ←  Psychodynamic o Oldest perspective by Feud o Hysteria: unusual symptoms that has no physical basis (glove anesthesia) o cannot feel the hand, like a glove being putted on; but not physiologically possible o associated with early sexual abuses; but w/ inconsistent memories = fantasies o symptoms vanished when the experiences are talked about; talking was the cure Q: Why is talking effective? o Topology of the mind o conscious mind: everything we are aware of at given moment o motivated or unconscious mind: wishes, desires, impulses that are beyond conscious awareness o motivated mind: materials kept because they are threatening or upsetting (unacceptable content)  probing the unconscious, he could make the unconscious conscious and cure his patients Case study probing unconscious: Obsessive thought (conscious) o obsessive thought X (conscious) linked by unconscious thoughts o when unconscious thoughts were brought to conscious, obsession disappeared o 3 structures of mind: (p36) 1. ID (chaos; cauldron of excitations) → entirely unconscious → reflects instinctive needs (hunger, sex) → linked to basic instinct or Eros—unconscious instinct to survive and reproduce → Eros produces psychic energy or Libido that must be released → operates according to pleasure principle: wants immediate gratification of needsirrational, no contact with reality LECTURE 2 – THEORIES OF PERSONALITY September 13, 2010 → Engages in primary process thinking: no distinction between fantasies and reality; can use fantasies to satisfies needs → Only structure humans are born with 2. EGO → developed after birth; extension of ID → conscious and unconscious → operates according to reality principle: try to satisfy ID but sensitive to demands of the real world; willing to delay gratification of ID needs → engages in secondary process thinking; develops plans to satisfy needs 2. SUPEREGO → moral component of person; embodies ideas of right and wrong → influenced by sociality → conscious and unconscious (EGO); irrational (ID, developed when young—does and don'ts; guilt feeling = associated with don’ts) → 3 structures interact with each other, negotiating how libidinal energy will be used → EGO has toughest job: controls ID, and satisfies Superego → How EGO stays in control: o anxiety signals loss of control; must do something to stay in control o neurotic anxiety: threats from ID to take control o moral anxiety: threats from superego to take control o reality anxiety: threats from the real world; upcoming exams o there is a reduction in anxiety when EGO regains control → ego relies on defense mechanisms to stay in control and reduce anxiety (p38-39) → Personality Development (p39-41) → how libidinal energy is expressed and focused; psychosexual development → controversial: kids have sexual fantasies, and it occurs for all children → but for Freud, sex = needs and desires related to physical pleasure (sucking, fondling genitals, sexual intercourse, relationships) → sexual function must pass through long complicated process of development before it becomes what we are familiar with—sexual behaviour of adults → 5 stages of psychosexual development and focus of libidinal energy 1. Oral stage (0-1y): mouth; sucking, biting LECTURE 2 – THEORIES OF PERSONALITY September 13, 2010 2. Anal stage (2-3y): anus; expelling feces, retaining feces 3. Phallic sta
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