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Chapter 11 Lecture.docx

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Psychology 2035A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Sex and Gender Part 1: Reproductive Biology Prenatal Sexual Differentiation  Beings at conception (sperm fertilizes egg)  Mother’s Egg 23 chromosomes (“x” sex chromosome)  Father’s Sperm (“x” or “y” sex chromosome) o If X sperm fertilizes egg = genetic female (xx) o If Y sperm fertilizes egg = genetic male (xy)  The Genetic Factor  The first stage in becoming a male or a female  For several weeks after conception you won’t have reproductive organs o Not a female or male yet  The Gonadal Factor  Development of reproductive organs: testes or ovaries  Depends on Y chromosome o If Y chromosome is present:  Stimulates development of testes  Inhibits development of ovaries  Problems: True Hermaphrodite o Genetic female with tiny piece of Y chromosome attached (XXy) o Big enough to stimulate development of testes; not big enough to inhibit development of ovaries (therefore both)  The Hormonal Factor  Development of sex organs: penis or clitoris and vagina  Testes produce androgens o When androgens are present; penis develops  The Adam principle o When absent, clitoris and vagina develop  The eve principle  Problems o The Adrenogential syndrome  Genetic female with unusually active adrenal glands (produce androgens)  Fetus develops sex organs that appear to be male (clitoris is enlarged, vagina is fused) o Androgen-insensitivity syndrome  Gentic male with normal testes that produce normal levels of androgens  But body is insensitive to androgens  Sex organs have female appearance o If everything goes as planned you are now a biological male or female  End of prenatal sexual differentiation  But for the next decade, you can’t reproduce  The Puberty Factor (involves hormones)  Girls (age 10 - 12); Boys (age 12 -14)  Development of secondary sex characteristics o Boys and girls: pubic hair, growth spurt o Girls: breast development o Boys: facial hair, deeper voice, larger penis  Gonads (reproductive organs) mature o Menstruation in girls (mature eggs are released from ovaries) o The first ejaculation in boys (production of mature sperm from testes) Part 2: Our Basic Identities  Sexual Identity (given to you by biology)  Gender Identity (perception of self as male or female; beliefs about what it means to be a male or a female) o “Gender Roles”  Expectations about how males and females should behave  Given to you by society  Nearly every society expects males and females to be different  Our society is no exception o Consider “Gender Stereotypes”  What are the characteristics of the average man and woman in our society?  Women: The communal dimension o Aka expressive; socially-oriented; feminine o E.g. caring, nurturant, affectionate, helpful  Men: The Agentic Dimension o Aka instrumental, task-oriented, masculine o E.g. aggressive, dominant, independent, self-reliant  Exercise  Father and son are involved in car accident  Both are seriously injured  Rushed to different hospitals  As son is prepared for surgery o Surgeon says I can’t operate on him because he’s my son  Wtf?  Mother o Two Questions:  Are these gender stereotypes accurate?  They contain a kernel of truth  Where do these differences come from?  Why are women more communal and men more agentic?  Might depend on biology (see tex
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