Psychology 2035A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Anorexia Nervosa, Operant Conditioning, Demon

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December 7, 2015
Psych 2035: Lecture (Chapters 14 and 15)
Psychotherapy and Psychological Disorders
Definitions, Causes, & Treatments
Part 1: What is a Psychological Disorder?
A. Abnormal thoughts, feelings, & behaviour
B. What does ‘abnormal’ mean?
1. Deviation from average (or normal)
2. Dysfunctional (maladaptive)
3. Causes Personal Distress (suffering)
-The ‘three D’s’: deviant, dysfunctional, and distressing
C. Problems with definition:
1. Definitions of normal and abnormal:
-Influenced by cultural norms and values (e.g., hearing voices, seeing visions)
-These experiences in certain cultures would not be deviant, dysfunctional or distressing
-Change over time within a culture (e.g., homosexuality pre & post 1973)
-Before 1973, homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder
2. Distress and dysfunction are subjective states (not objective states)
-There are lots of disturbed people out there who don’t experience distress for example
3. Not clear how much deviance, distress, and dysfunction is required
-Distinctions between normal and abnormal exist on a continuum
D. The DSM-5 classification system (p. 424)
Part 2: What Causes Psychological Disorders?
A. The Demonic perspective
-Evil spirits invade the body
-Drill a hole so spirits can escape!
-Or burned as witches during middle ages
B. The Medical (biological) perspective
-Abnormal biological functioning
-E.g. Ch 14; anxiety, depression, schizophrenia stem from abnormal levels of chemicals in the
brain
C. The Psychological perspective(s)
-Freud’s Psychodynamic perspective
-Conflicts between id, ego, and superego
-The Behavioural perspective (see classical & operant conditioning, p. 428-429)
-We learn abnormal behaviours
-The Cognitive perspective
-We learn abnormal ways of thinking
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