Psychology 2035A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Reverse Discrimination, Absenteeism, Occupational Stress

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CHAPTER 13- CAREERS & WORK
Choosing a Career
-Personal Characteristics
oChoosing a career is best managed by those who have secure attachments and a
self-efficacy about work.
oIntelligence predicts likelihood of entering particular professions but is not an
absolute predictor of career success.
oSpecific aptitudes (e.g., artistic talent) are more important than general
intelligence.
oSocial skills contribute to success in many careers.
oCareers ideally match one’s interests in the world and contribute to motivation.
-
-Family Influences
oCareer choices are influenced by family background because parents and children
often attain similar levels of education. Thus,
Middle-income background is associated with high-paying professions.
Low-income background is associated with “blue collar” occupations.
oParenting style is also associated with SES
Middle-income families encourage their children to be curious and
independent, traits well suited for professional roles.
Low-income families teach children to conform and obey, traits needed
to survive in subordinate positions.
Essential Info about Occupations
-You should be aware of these key issues when considering an occupation:
oThe nature of the work – what are the day-to-day responsibilities?
oWorking conditions – is it high or low pressure? Pleasant or unpleasant?
oJob entry requirements – what education and training are needed?
oOngoing training or education
oPotential earnings
-Potential status
-Opportunities for advancement
-Intrinsic job satisfaction
-Future outlook
-Security
Using Psychological Tests
-Occupational interest inventories – “measure your interests as they relate to various jobs
or careers."
-The primary focus is on job satisfaction, rather than success.
-Scores indicate how similar your interests are to the typical interests of people in various
occupations.
-However, you must ultimately decide what is right for you.
Models of Career Choice and Development
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Holland’s Person-Environment Fit Model
-Career choice is related to six stable personality types, or personal orientations.
-In addition, jobs can be classified into six work environments
Super’s Developmental Model
-Super focuses on the development of one’s occupational status over time. One’s self-
concept is crucial as the model unfolds over five major stages:
-1. Growth stage – in childhood, fantasize about ideal job
-2. Exploration stage – realistically consider different careers in one’s youth
-3. Establishment stage – commit to a career and learn to function effectively
-4. Maintenance stage – at midlife, focus is on retaining achieved status and protecting
security and power
-5. Decline stage – work activity decreases as retirement approaches
oRetirement brings the occupational cycle to an end
Women’s Career Development
-Almost 59% of adult women (versus about 71% of men) are in the labor force.
-There are still other gender gaps in the world of work.
Women still subordinate their career goals to those of their husbands.
Women’s careers are more likely to be interrupted by childrearing and family crises.
The Changing World of Work
Workplace Trends
1. Technology is changing the nature of work.
Workers must train and adapt to keep up.
2. New work attitudes are required.
Workers must take a more active role to prove that they are valuable in order to
attain job security.
3. Lifelong learning is a necessity.
Skills become obsolete every 10-15 years.
4. Independent workers are increasing.
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