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Psychology Notes

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Psychology 2036A/B
Yves Bureau

Psychology NotesJan 2412 Homeostasis The dynamic physiological response on the part of the body to maintain a stable internal state in spite of the demands of the environment We are always trying to feel good trying to maintain a calorie balance Going away from homeostasis is anything that causes discomfort We can then change our behaviour to try and become more comfortable Homeostasis requires communication within the body Nervous system The central nervous system CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord The peripheral nervous system PNS is located outside of the skull and spine and it serves to bring information into the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS There is no regeneration of nervous tissue in the CNS if there is damage but PNS damaged tissue can be repaired The PNS consists of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system The SNS contains afferent nerves sensory and efferent nerves motor Sensory input allows us to know our body position and then react to this Without pain we wouldnt move ourselves away from danger The ANS contains sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves which are both efferent Afferent neurons are nerve cells that conduct impulses from a sense organ to the CNS or from lower to higher levels in the spinal cord and brain Efferent neurons are nerve cells that take impulses away from the brain In the ANS all nerves are efferent Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves generally have opposite effects It has a twostage neural path where a neuron exiting the CNS synapses on a secondstage neuron located in ganglia which are collections of neuron cell bodies found outside the CNS before the target organ This prevents total shut down of organs SNS is responsible for voluntary activity and skeletal muscle control ANS is responsible for involuntary activity Parasympathetic The fibres emerge from the cranial and sacral regions and it is involved in rest and restore attempts to reestablish homeostasis The second stage neurons are located near the target organ Sympathetic The fibres emerge from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord and it is involved in fight or flight The second stage neurons are located far from the target organ In fight or flight you are trying to get away from something dangerous If you successfully run away from the predator you would then reestablish balance with the parasympathetic system and calm down Some people can have a constant fight or flight feeling even without there being a threat present They have difficulty restoring balance This is where health psychology comes in Coping mechanisms are helpful to try and restore balance if you have this constant feeling Meninges ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid CSF The CNS is encased in bone and covered by three meningesdura mater tough outer membrane arachnoid mater weblike and pia mater adheres to CNS surface The meninges protect the brain CSF serves as a cushion and loss of CSF is dangerous Choroid plexus is located within the walls of the ventricles and it produces the CSF Protecting the brain Chemical protectionThe bloodbrain barrier consists of tightlypacked cells tight junctions in blood vessel walls that prevent entry of molecules into the brain Nothing can get through and the brain is highly protected Physical protectionskull meninges CSF Around the axons of neurons is myelin In MS myelin is destroyed There is very little myelin in the brain at birth so it might be seen as a foreign substance When you bang your head hard there is a temporary disruption of the bloodbrain barrier The immune system gets access to the brain and may start attacking the myelin because it thinks its foreign This is what happens in MS Because MS is an immunerelated disease and stress is bad for people with immune diseases learning how to cope with stress is important for these people Cells of the nervous system Neurons are specialized cells nerve cells for the reception conduction and transmission of electrochemical signals They can be many sizes and shapes and different parts of the brain have different types of neurons Glial cells are more numerous than neurons and they
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