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Psychology 2036A/B
Yves Bureau

Psychology NotesJan 1712 What is health psychology Psychological consequences associated with ill health have long been noted In the 1970s psychological principles began being applied to understand and improve health and health care The emergence of the fields of behavioural medicine and health psychology occurred at this time Behavioural medicine 1977 is a branch of medicine concerned with the relationship between health and behaviour Health psychology 1980 is the application of psychological principles to the diagnosis and treatment of illness as well as to peoples attempts to maintain health and wellbeing Type A personality people are more prone to heart attacks or illness This relationship began being explored They injected people with viruses and those that got sick tended to be more stressed Psychological illnesses can produce adverse physical symptoms People with anxiety have higher stress levels and have higher cortisol and ACTH levels and will have more issues with being ill In depression there is an anxiety component and the immune system is weakened and the hypocampus shrinks This causes difficulty with memory but this can be reversed the hypocampus can show recuperation Early stages of health psychologys development Prominent topics in the fields developmentbehaviourism N Miller cognition and personality Krantz coping styles S Miller psychoneuroimmunology Cohen and Hebert BehaviourismNeal Miller 1983 He traced the development of biomedical perspective on illness to the germ theory which is the discovery that many illnesses are caused by the activity of microorganisms such as bacteria Germs invade the body more easily if the immune system is compromised Antibiotics were developed to fight these germs and this meant that lifestyle replaced infection as the number one killer Behavioural psychologists believe that our health is affected primarily by what we do rather than what we think He explained medical noncompliance by gradient of reinforcement the greater the lag time between behaviour and reinforcement the weaker the behaviour will be and delayed gratification when there is a lag time between behaviour and reinforcement Reinforcement is important for compliance For example eating junk food makes you feel good so eating healthier is hard to do Forceful cognitive abilities are required to do this because the result is in the future but eating makes you feel good right now in the present Compliance rates are lowest for asymptomatic conditions Cognition and personality Krantz 1985 studied personality and cognitive factors in health He looked at stress and cognitive restructuring psychology of smoking type A construct in health research eating disorders biopsychosocial approach and compliance patientphysician communication We can restructure how we think Helping someone think differently about things and themselves is just as effective as antidepressant medication as long as there isnt an endogenous thing going on fightorflight being able to continue to run away In most cases they are depressed because of their way of thinking so cognitive behavioural therapy is good Cognitive restructuring aims to change peoples stressprone interpretations of events Anorexia is the psychological disorder with the highest mortality rate It is highly tied to ocd People become obsessed with whether a piece of food will make them fat just like how people with ocd check if they locked a door Sometimes communication between physicians and patients is not very clear and this can affect compliance Focus on coping behaviours Rodin and Salovey 1989 focused on how people cope with all aspects of illness At this time health psychologists were attempting to identify coping styles which are strategies that an individual employs to deal with stresses caused by everchanging demands of the environment A good way more adaptive way of coping with a busy schedule is to learn to accept
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