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Psychology Notes

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Psychology 2036A/B
Yves Bureau

Psychology NotesFeb 1412 The hospital as a distinctunique culture Professionals use hightech language Personal questions are asked People dress and act differently Procedures may seem to be ritualistic unknown There is loss of control over ones health and wellbeing The person is not feeling well They may become anxious if they dont know if theyre ok Males especially alpha males dont like being in hospitals and want to get out and regain control of their lives Elderly people dont like going to hospitals because they may find theyre not capable of returning home If their hygiene isnt good doctors can ask questions to determine if the person is fit to look after themselves They can take away an elderly persons independence Also if theyre going to the hospital its probably because theyre not feeling well and not functioning properly in a cognitive way and so may not be able to ask the right questions Patients Different types of patients can have very different experiences Outpatients do not stay overnight and are seen in an office clinic or ambulatory care facility Inpatients are admitted for at least overnight They start to lose a little bit of control because they are no longer in their own home Day care patients do not stay overnight but their treatment in more involved than a simple procedure For emergency patients the length of the stay depends on severity A hospital patients loss of control Total institution is when the hospital takes control of virtually every aspect of a patients life Patients are expected to adapt to the hospitals schedule It has been found that patients want to share the decisionmaking control with their physician Also the more they trust their physician they more control they want the physician to have Reactance is when loss of control is perceived as an unacceptable challenge to freedom and it arouses anger It is behaving counter to recommendations in response to the feeling that one has lost personal control over health behaviours The patients complaints and demands for additional attention may be angry attmepts by the patient to reestablish a small measure of personal freedom Patients who are younger better educated or accustomed to more control over their environment are more likely to respond with reactance Sometimes restraining patients who are resistant and try to get out of bed when they shouldnt is necessary especially if there is no one present to monitor them Patients who respond with reactance are likely to experience anger increased secretion of stress hormones and aggravation of cardiovascular problems Learned helplessness is giving up when there is no apparent solution to ones problems The person because of experience with previously uncontrollable stressful situations learns to do nothing about a new stressor rather than trying to cope constructively with it Some patients can develop depression as a result Empowering care yields independence which results in learned mastery but disempowering care yields dependence which results in learned helplessness Patients suffering from learned helplessness may be suffering from decreased norepinephrine levels decline in general health and the possibility of sudden death Powerothers are hospital staff They make decisions for other people and patients see them as more powerful Patients beliefs of the control of powerfulothers changes over time Before and after a hospital stay the belief of the control of powerfulothers is low but during a hospital stay the belief of control increases People in their 80s and 90s view doctors in a different way from people our age Older people may have a different level of education and view doctors as very powerful and will listen to them But young people ask questions look information up on the internet and want to know whats happening Loss of control is closely linked to the need for information Monitors seek information and benefit from information Blunters avoid information and are worse with too much information Patients are less stressed when given an amount of information consistent with their coping style In a study
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