Psychology 2036A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Negative Affectivity, Thermoreceptor, Fidgeting

25 views6 pages
Psychology of Health
Secondary Intervention
Stopping an illness after it develops
Lecture 4
Lecture Topics:
1) Perceiving symptom
2) Deciding that we are ill (the role of illness representations)
3) Responding to treatments (the role of psychological reactance)
Our concern is reversing the illness after it has developed
Biology is only part of the story to reverse illness, much concern ourselves
with psychological and social factors
Perceiving Symptoms:
A. Physiological changes in the body
1. Detected by sensory receptors:
-Mechano-receptors (touch, pressure, vibration, movement)
-Thermo-receptors (heat and cold)
-Pain receptors (e.g tissue damage)
2. Produce “body sensation”
This is the first step in symptoms perception
3. Do we accurately perceive these sensations? In other words, can we accurately
detect what’s in our body?
-YES if pervasive and strong (e.g., extreme hunger, fatigue, pain)
-NO for weaker sensations; often ambiguous
E.g., correlation between perceived heart rate and actual heart rate is small (r=+10);
same for blood pressure; body temperature
-we are not very accurate at perceiving things like HR, BP, etc.
 How we perceive and interpret these sensations depends on psychological and
social factors
B. Psychological and Social Factors
1. Focus of Attention:
-“outdoor” joggers run faster than “indoor” joggers (and report less fatigue);
-WHY? Outdoor joggers pay less attention to the symptoms of fatigue.. they are less
likely to notice how rapidly they are breathing, heart is beating, etc.
Study:
-all jogging indoor on a treadmill
-one group was distracted (focused their attention on a series of words that was
playing for them via headphones; they needed to memorize them)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
-the other group is not distracted, they listened to their own heartbeat and
breathing through the headphones as they jogged
-Results: the joggers that focused on the distracter reported less fatigue than those
that focused on their fatigued symptoms (HR and breathing)
Also: coughing during boring parts of movies; focusing on vague sensations of their
body.
Fidgeting in lectures.
Children’s response to injury. Injury might not bother them until parents point it
out.
2. Cognitive Set: More likely to perceive symptoms if thinking about symptoms.
E.g., Cold hands, Stiff necks, itchy ankles.
-if thinking about symptoms, you are likely to experience them
AND: The Medical Students’ Disease
-it is a well established finding that they think they are experiencing the medical
illnesses that they are studying
-around 70% of all medical students experience this
-Occurs during times of stress;
During this time there attention is focused on the body;
-students notice “ambiguous” body sensations (produced by stress);
-Course material provides a “cognitive set” or way of interpreting sensations (“a
disease”);
-sensations perceived as symptoms of the disease!
3. Expectations
-We feel what we expect to feel.
-the “Ultrasonic Noise” study:
-participants were told that they would be exposed to 2 minutes of ultrasonic noise
for 2 minutes (noise you cannot hear)
-this does not exist, but they thought they were listening to it.
-they were also given expectations on how ultrasonic noise would effect their finger
temperature..
Groups:
Increase Decrease No expectation
Rating of Finger
Temperature 70 48 58
1=cool; 100=warm
Temperature cuff was important, because the finger temperature did not change for
any of the three groups.
Well couldn’t they just want to please the experimenter?
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class