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Lecture 6

Psychology 2036A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning, Saccharin

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Doug Hazlewood

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Biopsychosocial interactions
Question: Why do we become ill?
More interesting question: Why do we stay healthy?
-our bodies are constantly being assaulted by foreign threats: viruses, molds, fungi,
pollen, bacteria, etc.
But most of the time we’re healthy… WHY?
Because we have an IMMUNE SYSTEM
The Immune System
Part 1: what is it?
A. The immune system is a complex biological system that detects and destroys
“threats” to the body.
B. Types of immunity:
-innate immunity (born with this; e.g., fever when infected);
-Natural immunity (acquired from previous experience with illnesses; e.g.,
-Artificial immunity (acquired from vaccination; e.g., for polio, smallpox, etc).
C. Types of Threats:
-foreign substances that have invaded the body (e.g., viruses, bacteria) =>
called Antigens
D. –cells that are not behaving normally (e.g., cancerous cells; cells that have
become infected with a foreign invader)
Part 2: The immune System’s Response to Threats that have entered the body
(nonspecific and specific)
A. Nonspecific immunity (immune system attacks anything that looks unusual)
Key players:
 Phagocytes (scavengers that engulf and digest antigens in blood/body
fluids before they infect cells);
-they are the first line of defense
 Natural Killer (NK) cells; Attack and destroy infected (and cancerous) cells
-if the cell doesn’t look like its behaving properly, NK cells will attack
B. Specific Immunity: Attacks specific threats that have been encountered
 2 types of specific immunity; involved activity of B and T lymphocytes (white
blood cells)
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