Class Notes (811,048)
Canada (494,461)
Psychology (6,045)

Chapter Thirteen.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2040A/B
Jackie Sullivan

Chapter Thirteen: Development of Sex Differences & Gender Roles Gender Definitions - Gender Stereotypes are widely beliefs about characteristics deemed appropriate for males & females - Gender Roles are the reflection of these stereotypes in everyday behaviour - Gender Identity, is the private face of race – perception of the self as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics - Gender Typing refers broadly to any association of objects, activities, roles or traits with biological sex in ways that conform stereotypes gender (& thus, encompasses all the gender-linked responses o Largely because of progress in women’s rights, gender typing is no longer regarded as essential for healthy adjustment o Current research focuses on how biological, cognitive & social factors, influence development of gender stereotypes, roles & identity & on how to free children from gender-based societal expectations Gender Stereotypes & Gender Roles - Children begin acquiring gender stereotypes early in the preschool years - By middle childhood, they are aware of stereotypes for activities, behaviours, occupations, achievement areas & - for personality – instrumental & expressive traits o Instrumental Traits, reflecting competence, rationality & assertiveness, were regarded as masculine o Expressive Traits, emphasizing warmth, caring & sensitivity, were viewed as feminine - Despite the political activism promoting gender equality, these stereotypes essentially remain unchanged – thus, the pattern is ingrained in our thinking (Cast men in a more positive light & women in a negative one) o And instrumental-expressive dichotomy is worldwide - Besides personality traits, other gender stereotypes exist o Physical characteristics – males: tall, strong, study & women: soft, dainty, graceful o Occupations – males: truck driver, insurance agent & women: teacher, secretary o Activities/Behaviours – males: fixing things & women: good at childcare - Roles associated with male gender are more numerous, diverse & desirable than those of women Gender Stereotyping in Early Childhood - By 18 months – 3 years, children label their own & others’ sex (boy or girl) - Before age 2, they acquire subtle associations with gender (men – sharp/rough; women – soft/round) - During early childhood, gender-stereotyped beliefs strengthen o Most 3-6 year olds don’t want to be friends with someone who violates gender stereotypes (a boy wearing nail polish or a girl who plays with trucks) o In studies, despite the information given, children always resort back to gender stereotypes  Ex. “Tommy likes to play with dolls” – but if you ask a child what Tommy likes to play with, they say cars or trains because they know he is a boy - Most preschoolers do not realize that characteristics associated with being male or female do not determine a person’s sex Gender Stereotyping in Middle Childhood & Adolescence - By 5, gender stereotyping of activities & occupations is well-established - Knowledge of stereotypes increases in less obvious areas (personality traits & achievement) Personality Traits - Stereotyping of personality traits increases steadily in middle childhood, becoming adult-like by age 11 - Study showed that stereotypes acquired first reflected in-group favoritism o Many portrayed their own gender in a positive light o Girls express greater in-group favoritism & out-group negativity than boys Achievement Areas - Shortly after entering elementary school, children figure out which academic subjects/skill areas are “masculine” & “feminine” o These stereotypes influence children’s preferences & sense of competence in certain subjects - Some of gender-stereotyped beliefs might be changes as a study showed that most students disagreed with the idea that math is a “masculine” subject Toward Greater Flexibility - Although school-age children are knowledgeable about a wide variety of gender stereotypes, they also develop a more open-minded view of what males & females can do, a trend that continues into adolescence - Gains in gender-stereotype flexibility (overlap in the characteristics of males & females) occur in middle childhood & adolescence o But children still may disapprove of violates of gender-role expectations, especially in males Individual & Group Differences in Gender Stereotyping - Children acquire gender stereotypes in idiosyncratic ways, yielding wide individual differences - Boys hold more rigid gender-stereotyped views than girls, white children more than black children - Higher-SES adolescents & adults hold more flexible views than their lower-SES counterparts Gender Stereotyping & Gender Role Adaption - Awareness of gender stereotypes is only weakly related to gender-role adoption - Stereotype flexibility, however, is a good predictor of school-age children’s willingness to cross gender lines Influences on Gender Stereotyping & Gender Role Adoption Biological Influences - According to an evolutionary perspectives, males are genetically primed for dominance & females for intimacy, responsiveness & cooperation How Much Cross-Cultural Similarity Exists in Gender Typing - Cross-cultural similarities in gender typing have been found, but cultures vary widely in the extent to which they promote gender-role conformity Sex Hormones & Gender Typing - Prenatal androgen levels contribute to sex differences in play styles & to preference for same-sex peers - Research on children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) & androgen insensitivity syndrome support the role of androgens in “masculine” gender-role adoption Environmental Influences Perceptions & Expectations of Adults - Beginning in infancy, adults hold gender-stereotyped perceptions & expectations of children Treatment by Parents - Early on, parents reinforce “gender appropriate” play activities & behaviours & often use language that highlights gender distinction - In middle childhood, parents demand higher achievement from boys & hold gender-stereotyped beliefs about children’s academic abilities, with consequences for achievement & career choices - Fathers tend to differentiate between boys & girls more than mothers Treatment by Teachers - Teachers reinforce children of both sexes for “feminine” behaviour while also promoting traditional gender roles Observational Learning - Children also learn through observation of gender-typed models in surrounding environments - Interaction with same-sex peers further reinforces children’s “gender-appropriated” activity choices & promotes gender-typed style of social influence Siblings - The impact of sibling on gender typing varies with birth order & family size - In large families, same-sex siblings often strive to be different from one another & are likely to be less stereotyped Gender Identity - Although most people have traditional gender identity, a substantial minority are androgynous, scoring high on both masculine & feminine characteristics - Masculine & androgynous identities are linked to better psychological adjustment o Findings show that the masculine component of androgyny is largely responsible for the superior psych health of androgynous women o Women seem to have adjustment issues because many of their attributes are not valued highly by society Emergence of Gender Identity - According to social learning theory, behaviour comes before self-perceptions & that preschoolers first acquire gender-typed responses through modeling & reinforcement & then organize these into gender-linked ideas about themselves - In contra
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2040A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.