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Lecture

Psych 2040-Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2040A/B
Professor
Michael G Mac Donald
Semester
Winter

Description
DEVELOPMENT  development: systematic continuities and changes between conception and death  developmental continuities: ways in which we remain stable over time Drives of Development  maturation: developmental changes in the body that result from hereditary aging processes (eg. height)  affected by emotional and nutritional needs  learning: relatively permanent changes in behavior due to experience (eg. accommodation, assimilation) Goals of Developmentalists 1. Describe  normative development: typical patterns of change  ideographic development: individual variations in patterns of change 2. Explain  why do individuals develop differently? 3. Optimize  apply research findings to the “real world” Chronology of Development 1. Prenatal period: conception to birth 2. Infancy: birth to 18 months old 3. Toddler period: 18 months to 3 yrs 4. Preschool period: 3 to 5 yrs 5. Middle childhood: 5 to 12 yrs 6. Adolescence: 12 to 20 yrs 7. Young adulthood: 20 to 40 yrs 8. Middle age: 40 to 65 yrs 9. Old age: 65+ yrs HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON CHILDHOOD Ancient Period  active infanticide  family possessions Medieval Times  treatment of children debated by scientists  miniature adults or distinct phase of life? 17th and 18th Century Philosophers Thomas Hobbes Jean Jacques John Locke Rousseau Child’s inherent Original sin Innate purity Tabula rasa nature Child’s role in Passive Active Passive development  original sin: children are inherently negative creatures who must be taught to rechannel their selfish interests into socially acceptable outlets  innate purity: infants are born with an intuitive sense of right and wrong that is often misdirected by the demands and restrictions of society  tabula rasa: all knowledge, abilities, behaviors, and motives are acquired through experience Early Studies of Children  baby biographers: record an infant’s growth and development  Charles Darwin most influential: believed development of an individual child retraces entire evolutionary history of man  recorded development of own children  problems with this method  lack of objectivity  lack of generalizability SCIENCE OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY  founders:  G. Stanley Hall  questionnaire method  identified adolescence as unique period  Sigmund Freud  psychoanalytical theory  observations during patient treatment  theories → hypotheses  theory: a set of concepts and propositions designed to organize, describe and explain existing observations  hypothesis: theoretical predictions about some aspect of experience  follow the scientific method: objective investigation and data that is replicable, reliable and valid  reliability: consistency  validity: measures what it is supposed to  can be reliable but not valid, not valid and not reliable METHODS OF MEASURING DEVELOPMENT Self-Report Methods  structured interview: researcher asks set series of questions in a given order  structured questionnaire: questions/answers are written in a given order  diary study: participants write answers to specific questions either at specified times when prompted  clinical method: free-form interview Pros Cons  obtain a large amount of info in  not useful with young children a short amount of time  dishonesty/inaccuracy → invalid  useful when interviewer conclusions emphasizes confidentiality to  interpretation of question participant Observational Techniques  naturalistic: observing children in common surroundings  time-sampling: frequency of behavior recorded in brief observation intervals  structured observations: a lab situation designed to elicit specific behavior, particularly socially undesirable or infrequent behaviors Pros Cons  easily applied to infants and  difficult to determine cause of children behavior  demonstration of everyday  socially undesirable or infrequent behavior behaviors difficult to observe Case Studies  detailed record of an individual’s development Pros Cons  focus on groups  lack of generalizability Ethnography  researcher lives in community for period of time  understand effect of culture on development Pros Cons  rich understanding culture  highly subjective  lack of generalizability to other cultures Psychophysiological Methods  measures relationships between physiological processes and aspects of children’s physical, cogn
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