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Psych 2040-Chapter 5: Birth and the Newborn's Readiness for Life.docx

4 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 2040A/B
Michael G Mac Donald

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Childbirth  three stage process: 1. first stage of labor  begins when contractions spaced 10-15 min apart  ends when cervix is fully dilated 2. second stage of labor (delivery)  begins when fetus’ head passes through cervix  ends when baby has emerged 3. third stage of labor (afterbirth)  placenta expelled Assessing the Newborn  Apgar test  5 characteristics rated 0-2  heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, color, reflex irritability  scores taken at 1-5 min after birth  ≥ 7 = good, ≤ 4 = medical intervention  Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale  more subtle than Apgar  administered few days after birth  measures reflexes, responsiveness to stimuli, and neurological integrity: signs that should be there at one point but go away over time  can lead to early intervention Childbirth Issues  use of medication  natural and prepared childbirth: physical and psychological preparations for birth are stressed and medical assistance minimized o more positive attitudes toward birth  home births o result in lower stress  childbirth across cultures Social Environment Surrounding Birth  mother’s experience o emotional bonding: strong affectionate ties between parent and infant  early process of wakefulness, feeding, being warm  attachment is more when you can imagine something in its absence; takes place around 6-7 months— only then can you imagine something when it’s not there o postpartum depression: feelings of sadness, resentment and despair lingering up to months after childbirth  father’s experience  engrossment: paternal emotional bonding Birth Complications  anoxia: oxygen deprivation, often due to strangling by umbilical cord, or mucus lodged in throat o high risk with breech position: fetus emerging feet first o RH factor: blood protein that can cause mother to produce antibodies  transmitted by RH positive fetuses  attack red blood cells of fetuses with the protein in blood o prolonged anoxia more neurologically damaging than mild anoxia: implications on behavioural function  low birth weight (< 2500g) o preterm: born 3+ weeks before due date; appropriate weight for time in womb o small for date: born close to due date but grew slowly; higher risk than preterm o causes:  smoking, drinking, drug use
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