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Psych 2040-Chapter 9: Intelligence.docx

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Psychology 2040A/B
Michael G Mac Donald

What is Intelligence?  psychometric views o psychometric approach: intelligence is a trait or set of traits on which individuals differ o early Binet-Simon test: derived mental age but didn’t make sense backwards  later Stanford-Binet test o WISC measures intelligence of children  factor analysis: one or many abilities?  analysis of multiple tasks and attempts to determine which factors are most importantw3  Spearman’s g  Thurstone’s primary mental abilities  Hiarchical Models  consists of a general ability factor and specialized ability factors  Caroll’s 3 stratum theory of intelligence  Info-Processsing Perspecive  Sternberg’s triarchic theory: more than just about knowledge— interaction with others, problem solving abilities  Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences  at least 7 types of intelligence  linguistic, spatial, logical-mathematical, musical, body- kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, spiritual (?)  more than just IQ score How is Intelligence Measured?  Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale o calculated as: mental age/chronological age x100 o modern tests now use Deviation IQs  Wechsler Scales  WPPSI-III  WISC-IV  tests include both verbal and nonverbal (performance) measures  K-ABC  Bayley Scales of Infant Development  2-30 months  motor scale  mental scale  behavioural record  uses developmental quotient  poor predictive value for later IQ How stable are IQ scores across childhood?  scores at age 8 correlate with scores at age 18 (.70)  many children show fluctuations o increase or decrease; not random o environment important o cumulative deficit hypothesis What do IQ Scores Predict?  scholastic achievement o .50 correlation with future grades  vocational outcome  occupation  education  health, adjustment, satisfaction Factors that Influence IQ  evidence for heredity o twin studies: identical twins’ IQ correlated more than fraternal o adoption studies: adopted children’s IQ resemble biological parents more than adopted parents  evidence for environment  Flynn effect: secular trend of IQ  adoption studies  adoption more advantaged family & IQ  parental attitude and child-rearing practices  SES  sociocultural group— values?  home environment— risk factors for low IQ s
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