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Psych 2040- Chapter 16: Family.docx
Psych 2040- Chapter 16: Family.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2040A/B
Michael G Mac Donald

UNDERSTANDING THE FAMILY  family is a social system  entire system must be addressed to fix individual problems  most important function is to socialize children  network of reciprocal relationships  parents ↔ children  complex social system that is constantly evolving  holistic structure: interrelated parts which affect and is affected by other parts  nuclear family: husband, wife, kids  extended family: multigenerational influence Family as a Social System  characteristics: o dynamic— constantly developing o embedded within a larger culture  culture is also changing  collectivist children display better patterns of psychological adjustment in extended rather than nuclear families  changes in larger culture:  single adults  later marriage  decreased childbearing  women’s employment  divorce  single-parent families: more stress  poverty  remarriage Parent Socialization  dimensions of parenting: accepting/responsive parents vs. demanding/controlling parents  patterns of parenting: o Baumrind’s research: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive o Maccoby & Martin: uninvolved  children of authoritarian parents:  tend to conform  moody, unhappy  easily annoyed, unfriendly  children of permissive parents:  impulsive and aggressive  children of authoritative parents:  cheerful  socially responsible  achievement-oriented  cooperative  children of uninvolved parents:  aggressive  disruptive  hostile, selfish, rebellious  prone to antisocial/delinquent acts  least desired form of parenting  parenting effects carry on through adolescence  behavioral vs. psychological control  behavioural: regulate conduct through discipline and monitoring  psychological: influence behavior by psychological tactics such as withholding affection and/or inducing shame or guilt  behavioural control leads to better outcomes  psychological control leads to anxiety, depression, deviance  parent effects or child effects?  child effects model: children influence parents  parent effects model: parents influence children  transactional model: parents ad children influence each other reciprocally  variations in child rearing  SES effects (group trends)  lower class tends to be more authoritarian  family distress model  occupational expectations  cultural variations  authoritarianism in Chinese and Canadian families  no-nonsense parenting in African-American families  both methods “work” for their cultures; children do not grow up to be incompetent: it’s highly adaptive parenting Parent-Adolescent Relations  adolescents must achieve autonomy: independency o leads to conflict— parents feel responsibility to monitor and regulate child while child feels parent is infringing on personal rights o cut emotional ties in bad parent-child relationships to establish autonomy o keep emotional ties in good parent-child relationships to achieve autonomy  gradual shift from parent to child control Siblings  sibling rivalry: competition (often for attention) between 2+ siblings  influences on later sibling relationships  sibling conflicts related to… o marital conflict: dissatisfaction predicts antagonistic sibling interactions o parental monitoring: relationships better if parents monitor sibling activities o equality of treatment: older siblings better understand that younger siblings need more care, whereas younger siblings are particularly sensitive to unequal treatment  positive contributions:  caretaking: principal caregivers  emotional support: Strange Situation variation, confidante
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