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Psych 2040-Chapter 12: Emotional Development, Temperament, Attachment.docx

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Psychology 2040A/B
Michael G Mac Donald

EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Sequencing of Discrete Emotions  basic or primary emotions  present at birth: interest, distress, disgust, and contentment  emerge between 2-7 months: anger, sadness, joy, surprise, fear  complex or secondary emotions: self-conscious or self-evaluative, depend on part in cognitive development  at 2 years old  embarrassment: requires self-recognition  shame, guilt, envy, pride: requires self-recognition and understanding of rules for evaluating self-conduct  how parents react to transgressions may determine which emotion children feel  felt in absence of others after fully internalizing rules (well into elementary school) Socialization of Emotions and Emotional Self-Regulation  emotional display rules: culturally defined rules specifying which emotions should be expressed or suppressed at what times  North American babies = intense emotion okay if positive  Central African babies = restrain positive and negative emotions  emotional regulation: strategies for managing emotions or adjusting emotional arousal to an appropriate level of intensity  harder for 6 month old boys to regulate unpleasant emotions  develop methods of expressing fear to attract attention  parents often promote sympathy, guilt, pride Acquiring Emotional Display Rules  some ability to disguise emotions around age 3  girls more motivated and skilled at complying with display rules  teenagers who believe they are good at managing emotional display are more prosocial, better able to resist peer pressure, more empathetic  children who have mastered emotional codes of conduct more likable RECOGNIZING AND INTEPRETING EMOTIONS  discriminate facial expressions  social referencing  empathetic responding o sequential development for emotional understanding Social Referencing  using others’ emotions as a guide to react to uncertain situations  more common with age Empathy  ability to experience the emotions others are  discuss emotions  richer understanding of own and others’ feelings Emotional Competence  age 4-5: correctly infer emotions of others from body movements  recognize that current emotions may stem from past events  age 8: recognize that same situations evoke different responses from different people  age 6-9: recognize that people can feel multiple emotions at once  perhaps align cognitive development that comes with understanding Piagetian conservation principles (tall cup vs. wide cup)  EQ: competent emotional expressivity (frequent positive, infrequent negative emotions), competent emotional knowledge (ability to correctly identify others’ feelings and why), competent emotional regulation (ability to adjust expressions to achieve goals) TEMPERAMENT AND DEVELOPMENT  temperament: characteristic modes of responding (emotionally and behaviourally) to environmental events  measured by watching babies’ reactions  includes:  fearful distress: fearful response in new situations  irritable distress: distress when desires are frustrated  positive affect: frequency of positive emotions  activity level: amount of gross motor activity  attention span/persistence: length of time focused on objects  rhythmicity: regularity of bodily functions Heritability  identical more similar than fraternal at age 1  moderate correlations— genetically influenced to some degree Environment  positive aspects shared closely  negative aspects not shared Culture  teaches that some behaviors are acceptable while others are not  individualistic societies: shy and reserved less likely to be rated highly by peers = self esteem problems; dominant kids rated higher  collectivist societies: shy and reserved = mature STABILITY OF TEMPERAMENT  several components moderately stable  activity level, irritability, sociability and fearfulness  behavioural inhibition: tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar situations  most and least inhibited children show most stability  easily inhibited infants show greater electrical activity in right cerebral hemisphere (centre for negative emotions) Thomas & Chess Temperament Profiles  easy (40%): positive mood, regular habits, adaptable  difficult (10%): active, irritable, react negatively to novelty  slow to warm up (15%): moody, inactive, eventually adapt to novelty  temperamental patterns may or may not persist over time  “born” with one temperament which can change over time  goodness-of-fit model: match between parenting and child’s temperament  development likely optimized when fit is right ATTACHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT  attachment (John Bolwby): o close emotional relationship between two people o mutual affection o desire to maintain proximity  reciprocal relationships between parent and child  synchronized routines: participants adjust behaviors in response to partner  strengthens attachments  like a “dance”  occurs several times a day Attachment  growth of primary attachments 1. Asocial Phase (0-6 wk): anyone can make them excited 2. Indiscriminate attachments (6 wk-6/7 mo): preferences for particular company or objects; attention from strangers 3. Specific Attachment (7-9 mo): attached to one close companion (usually mother)  attachment figure serves as a secure base: a point of safety from which infant feels safe to venture 4. Multiple Attachments (by 18 mo): attached to other people as well THEORIES OF ATTACHMENT Psychoanalytic Theory  feedin
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