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Psych 2040- Chapter 13: Development of Self and Social Cognition.docx

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Psychology 2040A/B
Michael G Mac Donald

DEVELOPMENT OF SELF CONCEPT Early Self Concept  proprioceptive feedback: sensory info that helps us locate the position of our bodies  personal agency: recognition that one can cause an event  self-concept: one’s perception of one’s unique attributes or traits Self Recognition  the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror  rouge test: dab a spot of red on their face and see if they try to wipe it off  9-15 months do not recognize  18-24 months recognize  present self: recognize current representations of self but unaware that past self events have implications on the present  extended self: ability to integrate past, current, and unknown future self-representations and realizing it endures over time  contributors:  cognitive development: on the verge of creating mental symbols  social experiences: social isolates cannot self-recognize (chimps)  secure attachment: promotes self-recognition  parenting style: providing descriptive information, evaluating child’s behavior, recalling personal events  culture: stress on autonomy (measured by eye contact) = better self-recognition vs. stress on interdependence (measured by body contact)  categorical self: person’s classification of self along social dimensions, eg. age and sex Who am I?  preschoolers: concrete and physical elements but rudimentary psychological awareness  middle-schoolers: more “inner” qualities— traits, values, beliefs  adolescents: recognize they are not the same in all situations— false-self behaviours: acting in ways that do not reflect the “true me”  self-concept becomes more psychological, abstract, and coherent with age IDENTITY  self-definition, sense of who one is, where one is going in life, how one fits into society  Erikson’s identity crisis: uncertainty and discomfort at confusion about one’s role in life, in adolescence Identity Statuses 1. identity diffusion: not yet thought about or resolved identity issues and have not yet chartered future life directions o eg. I haven’t really thought about religion, I guess I don’t know exactly what to believe. 2. identity foreclosure: have committed to an identity without deciding what suits them best  eg. I am Buddhist; I was raised that way by my parents. 3. identity moratorium: identity crisis; actively seeking answers  eg. I like some aspects of Catholicism but I’m skeptical about some teachings as well. 4. identity achievement: solved identity issues by making personal commitments to particular goals, beliefs, values  eg. After a lot of research into religions, I finally know what I believe and what I don’t.  those in moratorium status feel better about themselves than age- mates in diffusion and foreclosure statuses  identity achievers have higher self-esteem, less self-conscious or preoccupied with personal concerns  those in diffusion become depressed and lack self-confidence  formation of identity takes time— reach moratorium and identity achievement around college  generally same between men and women but women attach greater importance to aspects centering on sexuality, gender roles, balancing family and career goals Influences on Identity Formation 1. Cognition  mastery of formal-operation  reason hypotheticals  imagine and contemplate future identities 2. Parenting  neglect/rejection = diffusion  controlling parents = foreclosure  solid base = moratorium & identity status 3. Scholastic  those who attend university: set career goals, make stable occupational commitments  those who work: establish firm political and religious identities 4. Socioculture  non-industrialized society = adopt adult roles expected to adopt  industrialized society = choose personal identity after exploration SELF-ESTEEM  one’s evaluation of one’s worth as a person  based on assessment of qualities identified in self-concept  five domains: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioural conduct  how do children rate themselves? o ages 4-7: all positive o age 8: ratings similar to others’ evaluations o adolescents: relational self-worth: self-esteem depends on relationship  some declines in early adolescence  girls: high self-esteem if supportive relationships with friends; low self-esteem if fail to win friends’ approval  boys: high self-esteem if successfully influential on friends; low self-esteem if lack of romantic competence Changes in Self-Esteem  gradual decline through early adolescence (9-20), then strengthens (21+), declines again (65+)  gender differences  suicide Social Contributors 1. Parenting Styles  warm & supportive = higher self-esteem 2. Peer Influences  social comparison: defining oneself by comparing to others o particularly where competition and i
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