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Psych 2040-Chapter 9: Cognitive Development, Part II.docx

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Psychology 2040A/B
Michael G Mac Donald

Random things he says during class  brain at 75% growth at 2 YO while ½ height  study myelination Information Processing  human mind similar to computer  limited capacity  hardware: nervous system  software: mental programs specifying how info is registered, interpreted, stored, retrieved, analyzed Multistore Model (Atkinson & Schriffin)  model of the flow of information in thinking  information flows through 3 main stores  sensory store: stimuli are noticed and briefly available for further processing, “echo” of raw sensory input  short-term store: stimuli retained for several seconds and operated upon  long-term store: info examined and interpreted, stored permanently for future use Metacognition  metacognition: knowledge about one’s cognitive abilities  executive control: processes involved in regulating attention and in determining what to do with info just gathered or retrieved from long-term memory  largely voluntary  higher level cognition emerges as a result of self- organization: lower level units (sensations, features) interact and organize into higher order units (perception. concept)  knowledge base: one’s existing information about a topic or content area Development of Capacity  short-term  memory span: measure of the amount of info that can be held in STS  span of apprehension: number of items that people can keep in mind at any one time or the amount of info that people can attend to at a single time without operating mentally to store this info  domain-specific knowledge  10 year old chess players vs. adults  digit span task  adults better at digits, children better at chess pieces  expert child can beat novice adult due to expertise  strategy: goal-directed, deliberate mental operation to facilitate task performance  age differences in strategy account for a substantial part of age-related differences in a child’s performance  early strategy deficiencies  production deficiencies: failure to spontaneously generate and use known strategies that could improve learning and memory  utilization deficiencies: failure to benefit from learned strategies  thought to occur in early phases of strategy acquisition when executing strategy requires mental effort  min retrieval: counting numbers aloud to get a sum  fact retrieval: “just knowing” the answer  adaptive strategy choice model (Siegler): multiple strategies exist at any one time and they compete with one another for use  describes how strategies change over time Implicit vs. Explicit Thinking  implicit: unconscious  explicit: conscious  children’s awareness of the distinction between conscious and unconscious thought develops gradually  most infant thoughts are implicit Fuzzy Trace Theory (Brainerd and Reyna)  people encode information on a continuum from literal verbatim representations to gist  gist: vague, fuzzy representations preserving essential content without precise details  easily accessed  require relatively little effort to use  verbatim susceptible to interference  children tend to lean towards verbatim while adults prefer gist  traces: memory representations  susceptible to interference  more easily forgotten  children’s reliance on verbatim or gist traces changes Attention  attention span increases due to increased myelination of CNS and because children improve on ability to seek and concentrate on task-relevant stimuli  development of attention  planning attentional strategies  selective attention: capacity to focus on task-relevant aspects while ignoring irrelevant or distracting information  cognitive inhibition: the ability to present oneself from executing a reponse  meta-attention Memory  strategic memory: processes involved as one consciously attempts to retain or retrieve information  includes effort to retain or retrieve information  includes mnemonics (memory strategies): effortful techniques used to improve memory  rehearsal, organization, elaboration  event memory: long term memory for events  includes autobiographical memory: memory for imp
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