(piaget"s theory, case"s neo-piagetian theory, vygotsky"s sociocultural viewpoint) Cognition: activity of knowing & the mental processes through which knowledge is acquired. Cognitive development: changes that occur in mental abilities over the course of our lives. Mental abilities = attending, perceiving, learning, thinking, and remembering. Vygotsky"s sociocultural theory cognitive growth is heavily influenced by one"s culture it is not as universal as piaget assumed pattern of intellectual growth that unfolds during infancy, childhood, adolescence. Genetic epistemology: experimental study of the development/origin of knowledge. Piaget studied children using the clinical method (q&a technique to discover how children of diff ages solve diff problems & think about issues) through naturalistic observations, he formed his theory of intellectual growth. Intelligence: basic life function that allows an organism to adapt to it"s enviro. Intelligence = a form of equilibrium toward which all cognitive structures tend .