Psychology 2042A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Child Prostitution, Domestic Violence, Psychological Abuse

41 views8 pages
Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2042A/B
Lecture 10 April 2nd: Child Abuse and Neglect
Overview
- Child abuse and neglect have been recognized as a significant problems since the early 1970s
- In North America, it is estimated that one in ten children experience some form of sexual
victimization by an adult or peer. It is estimated that one in ten receives harsh physical
punishment by a parent or other caregiver that puts them at risk of injury
- Child maltreatment refers to four primary acts: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and
emotional abuse
- Non-accidental trauma refers to the wide/range effects of maltreatment on the child’s physical
and emotional development
- Victimization is abuse or maltreatment of someone whose ability to protect himself or herself is
limited
- Most common child abuser would be a single mother; sexual abuse is more common with men
- Maltreatment often occurs within ongoing relationships that are assumed to be protective,
supportive, and nurturing
- Abused or neglected children face paradoxical dilemmas
o The victim wants to stop the violence but also longs to belong to the family in which
they are being abused
o Affection and attention may coexist with violence and abuse
o Intensity of violence tends to increase over time, but in some cases, physical violence
may decrease or stop
- Societies are struggling to balance parental rights with children’s rights to be safe and free from
harm
o Maltreatment harms children physical, in developing relationships with others, and in
their fundamental sense of safety and self-esteem
Healthy Families
- Children need a caregiving environment that balances their need for control and direction
(“demandingness”) with their need for stimulation and sensitivity (“responsiveness”)
- Healthy parenting includes:
o Knowledge of child development and expectations
o Adequate coping skills and knowledge of ways to enhance development through
stimulation and attention
o Normal parent-child attachment and communication
o Home management skills
o Shared parenting responsibilities
o Provision of social and health services
- Healthy patterns depend on:
o Parental competence and developmental sensitivity
o Family circumstances
o Availability of community resources (education, childrearing information, social
networks, and support)
- Family situation (e.g., parents’ marital relationship and child’s characteristics) provides basic
context of child-rearing
- Fundamental, expectable environment:
o Infants: protective and nurturing adults, as well as opportunities for socialization within
culture
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Older children: supportive family, peer contact, opportunities to explore and master
their environment
o *****
- Continuum of Care figure 14.1 ***
Neglect
- Physical neglect: refusal or delay in seeking health care, expulsion from the home, or refusal to
allow a runaway to return home, abandonment, and inadequate supervision
- Educational neglect: allowing chronic truancy, failing to enrol a child of mandatory school age in
school, or failing to attend to a child’s special education needs
- Emotional neglect (most difficult to define): marked inattention to a child’s needs for affection,
refusal or failure to provide needed psychological care, spousal abuse in the child’s presence,
permission of drug/alcohol use by the child
- Requires consideration of cultural values and poverty when determining neglect
- Neglected children show behaviour patterns between undisciplined activity and extreme
passivity
- Table 14.1 **
Sexual Abuse
- Fondling a child’s genitals, intercourse with the child, incest, rape, sodomy, exhibitionism, and
commercial exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials
- May significantly affect behaviour, development, and physical health of sexually abused children
- Reactions and recovery of sexually abused children vary, depending on the nature of the assault
and responses of important others
o Many acute symptoms resemble children’s common reactions to stress
- Constitutes a breach of trust, deception, intrusion, and exploitation of a child’s innocence and
***
Emotional Abuse and Exploitation
- Emotional abuse:
o Repeated acts or omissions that may cause serious behavioural, cognitive, emotional, or
mental disorders
o Exists in all forms of maltreatment
o Can be as harmful as to a child’s development as physical abuse or neglect
- Exploitation
o Commercial or sexual exploitation, such as child labour and child prostitution
o Significant form of trauma for child and adolescents worldwide
As many as ten million children may be victims of child prostitution, the sex
industry, sex tourism and pornography
Incidence of Abuse and Neglect in North America
- Almost one million children in U.S. are substantiated victims of child maltreatment each year
(10.1 per 1,000 children)
o Neglect (78.4%), physical abuse (11%), sexual abuse (7.6%), psychological maltreatment
(7.6%), and other forms of maltreatment (9.6%)
About one in four suffered more than one form of maltreatment
o Sexual and physical abuse cases have declined considerably since 1992?
Economic improvement
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Awareness
Page 455!
- Lifetime prevalence estimates of childhood abuse in Ontario Health survey “during childhood
did you experience…?)
o Sexual abuse: 4.3% of males; 12.8% of females
o Physical abuse: 31.2% of males; 21.1% of women
Characteristics of Victimized Children
- Age
o Younger children more at risk for abuse and neglect, while sexual abuse is more
common among older age groups (over 12)
o Except for sexual abuse, victimization *****
Characteristics of Family and Perpetrator
- More common among the poor and disadvantaged
- Children from single-parent homes with a live-in partner and large families are art highest risk
- 80% of victims are abused by one or both parents, although nearly 50% of sexually abused
children are abused by persons other than parents/parent figures
o Mother is perpetrator of neglect 90% of the time
- Males are offenders in majority of sexual abuse (90%), and about half of those are the child’s
father or father figure
- Except for sexual abuse, the most common perpetrator for child maltreatment is a female
parent acting alone, typically younger than 30 years of age
Resilience and Adaptation
- Maltreatment does not affect each child in a predictable or consistent way; outcomes depend
on severity and chronicity of events and how the events interact with the child’s individual and
family characteristics
- Protective factors
o Positive relationship with at least one important and consistent person in the child’s life
who provides support and protection (may be a maltreating parent)
o Personality characteristics, such as positive self-esteem and sense of self
- Removing children from families can become another source of stress and disruption, with
undesired side effects
Developmental Consequences
- Early attachment and emotion regulation:
o Parent-child attachment and home climate play a critical role in emotion regulation
(ability to modulate or control the intensity and expression of feelings and impulses)
o Maltreated infants/toddlers have difficulty establishing reciprocal, consistent interaction
with caregivers:
Exhibit insecure-disorganized attachment
Have difficulty understanding, labelling, and regulating internal emotional states
Learn to inhibit emotional expression and regulation, remaining more fearful
and on alert
o Difficulty modulating emotions can result in depressive reactions or angry outbursts and
may lead to self-harm as well as internalizing and externalizing problems
- Neurobiological development
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Lecture 10 april 2nd: child abuse and neglect. Child abuse and neglect have been recognized as a significant problems since the early 1970s. In north america, it is estimated that one in ten children experience some form of sexual victimization by an adult or peer. It is estimated that one in ten receives harsh physical punishment by a parent or other caregiver that puts them at risk of injury. Child maltreatment refers to four primary acts: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Non-accidental trauma refers to the wide/range effects of maltreatment on the child"s physical and emotional development. Victimization is abuse or maltreatment of someone whose ability to protect himself or herself is limited. Most common child abuser would be a single mother; sexual abuse is more common with men. Maltreatment often occurs within ongoing relationships that are assumed to be protective, supportive, and nurturing.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.