Class Notes (808,141)
Canada (493,088)
Psychology (6,021)
Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Children who are Gifted, Creative and Talented (Chapter 9).docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2043A/B
Esther Goldberg

Children who are Gifted, Creative and Talented Associated Reading: Chapter 9 Clarification  When talking about mental retardation, certain criteria have been set upon which a diagnosis is made  In contrast, the term ‘giftedness’ is not a diagnostic term – there is no such thing as being diagnosed with giftedness  It is a term that designates an exceptionality rather than a diagnosis Defining Giftedness  As discussed in the last lecture, IQ is normally distributed, and most people are close to the average (IQ=100)  There are relatively few people who fall to either extreme  This applies to both the low extreme (mental retardation) and the high extreme (giftedness)  When we discuss giftedness, we’re often referring to people in the top two percent (IQ > 130)  Proportionately in society, we should have the same number of people who are gifted as those who are mentally retarded  Often, with regards to giftedness, all we look for is the individual’s IQ  This is in contrast to the idea that many different factors (including IQ) apply to mental retardation US Office of Education Definition of Giftedness “The term ‘gifted and talented’, when used with respect to students, children or youth, means students, children or youth who give evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields, and who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities”  The easiest way to explain giftedness would be to refer to these individuals as having high intelligence (high IQ)  However, this definition highlights intellectual ability while also emphasizing a number of other areas – creative, artistic, and leadership Ministry of Education (Ontario) Definition of Giftedness “An unusually advances degree of general intellectual ability that requires differentiated learning experiences of a depth and breadth beyond those normally provided in the regular school program to satisfy the level of educational potential indicated”  This definition differs from that of the US Office of Education  Both definitions are similar in that they feel that being gifted (or talented) means that you need a different educational experience  However they differ in their beliefs about what giftedness is  In Ontario, we solely look at intellectual ability (i.e. IQ)  In the US, however, they have a broader definition incorporating a number of other areas of exceptionality Characteristics of Gifted Individuals  Lewis Madison Terman was a researcher who focused his career on looking at gifted kids  As expected, many people form stereotypes of gifted kids (i.e. they think they’re scrawny, nerdy, awkward etc.)  Because of this, Terman wanted to look at things that might make people re-think those stereotypes  So, he studied 1500 California children who had an IQ of 135 or higher  He wanted to study them and see what happened to them later in life – would they turn out to be successes or failures, and what kinds of qualities would they have?  These children that he studied became known as ‘Termites” o In order to be a termite, a child only had to have a high IQ (above 135) and live in California o He used this IQ of 135 as a ‘cut off’ o These children were anywhere in between the ages of 3 and 19, and Terman protected their names  After ‘following’ these Termites for a long time, he found that they tended to be taller, healthier, physically better developed and superior in leadership and social adaptability  This really defied what people believed about these ‘scrawny, nerdy’ kids  He also found that gifted children become gifted adults, but that IQ alone cannot predict success in life  Even thought the Termites were all exceptionally bright children, they did not all make important contributions to society, while at the same time, some children who did not ‘make the cut’ made significant contributions to society  Thus, this study highlighted the complexity of being gifted  Terman felt strongly about a number of things: o Children should be identified as early as possible in childhood o Gifted children should have differentiated curriculum and be accelerated through school o Gifted children should be allowed to develop in the directions that they’re interested in o Gifted children (the top 1%) should be seen as a natural resource for society and we need to include them in our planning of the betterment of society Classification of Giftedness  Giftedness, similar to mental retardation, is estimated to occur in 205% of the population of school-aged children  In the same way that levels of intellectual ability are important in the classification of mental retardation, they apply to the classification of giftedness as well o (Moderately) Gifted (IQ = 130-145)  The majority of children will fall closer to the average (i.e. in this range)  There will be more children at the 130 mark than at the higher end  1 in 40-50 children fall in this range o Highly Gifted (IQ = 145-160)  1 in 600 children will fall in this range o Extremely Gifted (IQ = 160-180)  I in 10 000 will fall in this range o Profoundly Gifted (IQ = 180+)  1 in a million will fall in this range (statistically)  Also, similar to with mental retardation, children who fall in the mild range will need different resources than those who fall in the profound range  Each school, statistically, should have one highly gifted child at any given time  Evidence says that gifted individuals, although they have many strengths, will likely have issues related to mal- adjustment  Studies in adults conclude that the rate of mal-adjustment goes up as IQ goes down Smartest Man in the World?  Chris Langan is known as one of the smartest living people in the world  He is now in his 50s, but for many years, Chris worked as a bouncer in a bar, living in long island  He was making enough to stay afloat, but not the amount of money one would expect a ‘successful ‘ individual to make  He was profiled on the show 20/20 (i.e. he was given an IQ test), and the neuropsychologist who tested him had never seen anything like it before  He had an immeasurable IQ – he was off the charts  According the him, as a child he was exceptionally gifted  He claims that he started talking at about 6 months of age, started reading before he was 4, and wrote his first book at the age of 5  Despite all of this, Langan did not do well in school  He was abused by his stepfather and badly mal-treated, so at school, he was seen as a teacher’s pet (as he clung onto adult attention)  For this, Langan was bullied, and was constantly made to feel like an outsider  Once he reached college, Langan dropped out and never ended up graduating  So, despite being thought of as one of the great minds of the world, Langan was not making any major contributions to society  He argues that he could’ve done anything he wanted to if the people in his life had helped him, and that his lack of a professional life relates to his difficulties in school and at home  With regards to his financial difficulties, he attributes them to not ‘caring’ about money - he believes that “there’s no logical connection between being smart and having money”  Despite his outsider lifestyle, Langan has tried to contribute to society in other ways – one of which being the founding of the Mega Society Societies for the Gifted  There are a number of societies that have been set up for gifted individuals over the years  In order from lowest IQ requirement to highest IW requirement, these societies are: o MENSA  This is the most widely known gifted society  It was set up for individuals who fall within the top 2%  IQ at or above the 98 percentile  In order to join, all one has to do is take a test to prove that they are within that 2%, pay a small fee, and they are ‘in’  Thus, MENSA is not as exclusive as people believe it to be  Ages of MENSA members ranges anywhere from 4 years of age to 100 o Top One Percent Society (TOPS)  TOPS was created in order to differentiate between those who would qualify for MENSA and a more elite group (the top 1% rather than the top 2%)  Therefore, these individuals are a little bit ‘rarer’  IQ at the 99 percentile o One in a Thousand’s (OATHS) a.k.a. The Triple Nine Society  IQ at or above the 99.9 percentile o Prometheus Society  IQ equal to or greater than that received by the highest one thirty thousandth of the population th  IQ at or above the 99.997 percentile (160+) o Mega Society  The Mega Society is only open to people who have scored in the ‘one in a million’ category th  IQ at or above the 99.9999 percentile  As the IQ requirement of these societies becomes higher, the proportions of people whoa re accepted into them becomes more and more rare  It is important for children who are gifted to have the opportunity to be friends with people who are more ‘like’ them (similar to children with mental retardation) Models for Giftedness  Due to the fact that there is no diagnostic criteria for giftedness, we focus more on ‘theories’ and ‘models’ to come by a system of classification  There are 5 main models of giftedness that we should be familiar with: 1) Terman’s Theory of IQ as the sole criterion 2) Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence 3) Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 4) Renzulli ‘s Three Characteristics of Giftedness 5) Gagné’s Differentiated Model of Gifts and Talents Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence:  Sternberg’s theory is set up like a triangle, as he believes that there are 3 categories/types of intelligence  He also believes that everybody has all 3 components to some degree, however most people are stronger in one area over others 1) Analytic Intelligence:  This element of intelligence encompasses the way in which people analyze or process information  It is what we think of as the ‘critical’ part of intelligence (that which can be measured with an intelligence test)  This is why it is at the top of the triangle  People who are ‘strong’ in this area think critically and analytically  This component emphasizes information processing and how we do it  This piece of giftedness could also be referred to as ‘concrete’ intelligence 2) Creative Intelligence:  This element of intelligence looks at how people approach new or unfamiliar tasks  It emphasizes the formulation of new ideas  This piece can also be looked at as the insightful dimension  Creative intelligence is also known as ‘experiential’ or ‘fluid’ intelligence 3) Practical Intelligence:  This is the environmental element of intelligence  People who are strong in this area are able to adapt well to the demands of everyday like  They can adapt to and shape their current environment, select a better environment etc.  In general, they are people who have more of an impactful presence  They can do what is needed based on the environmental demands  Often, this is referred to as ‘street smarts’ – intelligence in a practical sense  People who may not do well on an intelligence test otherwise may still have very good ‘survival’ skills (practical skills) that keep them above others  These individuals can learn something on the fly and do it well without being trained  So, this theory incorporates the traditional or analytical piece (as is measured with IQ tests), but also both the creative and practical pieces of intelligence as well  This theory reflects that intelligence is affected by and related to culture  Sternberg believes that intelligence tests aren’t necessarily the ‘way to go’ because they don’t account for cultural discrepancies  He believes that the 2 ‘extra’ dimensions (creative and practical intelligence) are often missed but are very important to consider Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences:  This theory is the most well known out of the 5  Howard Gardner took the world by storm a few decades ago by developing this theory of multiple intelligences  According to Gardner, intelligence refers to the human ability to solve problems or make something that is valued in one or more cultures  His key point is that gifted children don’t all fit into the same box  In other words, something may be valued in one culture that is not valued in another, but that shouldn’t minimize it’s importance  Historically, people were ‘termites’ – only one intellectual measure was important and if you did well in that category, you were considered gifted (i.e. the linguistic or mathematical area)  Gardner thought that there were children who were outstanding in other areas that were not being properly tested  So, be brought in a broader search for giftedness by introducing 8 areas that he considered ‘intelligences’  Some of these areas match traditional beliefs, and others are broader 1) Linguistic Intelligence:  Individuals who possess linguistic intelligence can use language effectively as a means of expression  They are highly effective using both written and spoken word  Possible careers: writer, comedian, poet 2) Logical-Mathematical Intelligence:  According to Sternberg’s theory, this would be the analytical piece of intelligence  Individuals who posses logical-mathematical intelligence can think logically, recognize relationships and patterns between concepts or things, have heightened scientific ability, and are very systematic  Possible careers: mathematician, lawyer, scientist  Examples: Albert Einstein, John Dewy (Dewy Decimal System) NOTE: The above two areas of intelligence would be considered ‘traditional’, as they can be tested with IQ tests 3) Visual-Spatial Intelligence:  Individuals who possess visual-spatial intelligence can think well in images and can orient themselves well spatially  They are able to think graphically  Possible careers: artist, decorator, architect, pilot, sailor  Examples: Picasso, Frank Lloyd Wright 4) Musical Intelligence:  Individuals who possess musical intelligence are able to use music as a vehicle of expression and are able to appreciate music in a variety of forms  They are very perceptive of rhythm, melody and pitch  Possible careers: singer, instrumentalist, music critic etc. 5) Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence:  Individuals who posses bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are able to use their own body as a means of expression, or work with their body to create or manipulate objects  This can include craftspeople as well as artists  Possible careers: dancer, athlete, sculptor, su
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2043A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.