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Lecture 6

Chapter 8 - Vision Lecture 6.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2043A/B
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture6Chapter8CommunicationLanguageandSpeechDisordersSpeechistherepresentationofthemindandwritingistherepresentationofspeechAristotle7080ofinmateshavesomeformoflanguagedisabilityAIM1HistoricalOverviewandIntroduction1800Elocutionhaveeveryonespeekverycorrectlywithproperexcuation1872SchoolofVocalPhysiologyAlexanderBellStudentswhoweredeaforwhohadstuttersorarticulationproblemsnotmuchorallanguageGoalwasforthemtodeveloporallanguage1925AmericanSpeechandHearingAssociationASHAdefinedwhatlanguagedisorderswereandstartingtotrytodothingsaboutitPaulBroca1861PatientthatcouldonlysayTanWhenhediedhefoundthatininleftfrontalcortextherewasalesionCarlWernicke1876FoundprobleminlefttemporallobeHistoricalOverviewsEveryoneagreesaboutwhatchildrenactuallydoDebateabouthowchildrenacquirelanguageBehaviouristsViewLanguageisasubsetofotherlearnedbehavioursBelievesinthestimulusresponseviewSocialLearningViewBehaviouristsviewimitationchildrenareeasilyabletoimitatethusaidinlearninglanguageCognitivebiologicalViewChomsky196070sexaminedtherulesandsequencesgoverningtheacquisitionoflanguageGrammarinnatetothehumanbrainInnatelanguageacquisitiondevicethatisuniquetoandpresentinallhumansAllthatweneedistheexposuretolanguageandthedeviceisactivatedandwepickuplanguageALLchildrengothroughthesamepatternandmilestonesthatkidsgothroughwhenlearninglanguageoprogramedtopickuplanguagethattheyareexposedtoPragmaticsViewcurrentviewSocialaspectsoflanguageoAschildrenlearnlanguagetheylearnprimarilyfromsocialandnaturalisticenvironmentsExposuretolanguageBilingualbiculturallanguageacquisitionCognitiveViewdependsonthechildsexposuretolanguagemorelanguageachildhearsandthegreatercomplexitythemorelikelythechildwilllearnthestructuralpropertiesoflanguageDiscussionIsLanguageuniquetohumansYesNootherspecieshaveanarbitrarysymbolsystemNoAnimalsareabletocommunicateLanguageinBonobosSavageRumbaughShare9899humangenesApproachistoletanimalspickuplanguagesymbolsinnormalconversationApesdonthavevocalboxessodecidedtoteachthemsignlanguageGrammarandsyntaxareveryimportantinlanguageapeswereunabletomakethisdistinctionsomepeoplethinkapescanspeakbecausetheywerenottaughtlanguageintherightwayBonobostaughtlanguagethroughsymbolsystemBonobosunderstandingofnewsentencesisaboutthelevelofa25yearoldchildCommunicationvsLanguageBirdsdoitReferentialcommunicationAlarmcallsforwhenpredatorsarearoundchickadeemoresylobysattheendoftheircallmeansamoreseriouspredatorBeesdoitSododolphinsmonkeysapesandhumansallsortsofmobilecommunicateCommunicationExchangeofthoughtsinformationandideasbetween2peoplerequires3thingsSenderMessageReceiversenderimitatesthecommunicationanddeterminesthemessageandthereceivergetsthemessageandmustinterpretittounderstandwhatismeanscommunicationcanbedonebymostspeciesincludestheInformationProcessingModelinputhearingorseeingcentralprocessingthinkingaboutandunderstandingoutputspeakingsingingorwittingexecutivefunctiondecisionmakingemotionalcontextemotionsthatmustbefactoredintocorrectlyunderstandthemessageDiversityinCommunicationmanywaysofsendinglanguagesforhumanspeciescanbetogetherorapart
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