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Exceptional Children: Developmental Disorders - Lecture 2

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Psychology 2043A/B
Esther Goldberg

Psychology 2043AExceptional Children Developmental Disorders thLecture 2Monday September 26 2011 RISK FACTORS AND CHILDREN AT RISK 1Class Overview o Will explain why there are differences in terms from the textbook to the lecture 2Factorsissues that come up a lot in clinical settings o Important to be able to tell the parents what might happen to the child if they are at risk for certain influencing factorsRisks o Factors that PRECEDE a negative outcome and increase the chances that that outcome will occur Ex Your risk for developing a cold will increase if you walk outside without an umbrella o Environmental issues o Biological issues o Can affect any area of development o Cognitive physical affectivemood social problems o Can be chronicacute experiences1 time exposuresLong term exposures o Known risk factorsNatural disasters family breakups inadequate parenting prenatal stress community violence poverty issues o Can classify risk factors in 2 waysEnvironmental factors y Life events that bring stress into the childs lifeIndividual factors y Make a child respond maladaptively o Some risk factors are more influential than othersDepends on the disorders involvedDepends on the time in development y Windows of time that children are more likely to have impacts from those risks o Risk factors can work togetherComplex interactions that can make the outcomes that much worse o Risk can accumulate o They can be individual familyoriented environmentoriented o Some risk factors are not specific to certain disorders Same risk factors can have several different appearances in different children with different disordersResiliencyo Applied to children who are exposed to risk factors but nevertheless excel o The ability to fight offrecover from negative experiences o Successful adaptation despite risk factors 2Established risko Medical conditionsanomalies Always result in disability or developmental delay o Related to geneticchromosome problemsWhich could also fall under the biological realm but we tend to think of these core problems as being established 3Know the basicsWont generally question us on too much hardcore biologyMost people have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs in every cell of our body except for our sex pairs o Femaleova x o Malesperm yNumerical abnormalities o Number of chromosomes isnt correctMonosomy y Missing either of the chromosomes from the pairTrisomy y More than 2 chromosomes in a pair not a pair anymore y Down SyndromeTrisomy 21 o 3 chromosome 21s instead of 2 o Most common genetic abnormalities that we have identifiedWe have identified thousandsIf theres enough people with a certain abnormality we can label it a syndromeKlinefeltersy 2 Xs and a Y 3 sex chromosomes instead of 2 o They are males o Usually sterile cant have children o Longer arms longer legs taller than peers o Personality typeshy and quiet
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