Chapter 3 Notes This is for Psych 2060, taken online, for the Muchinsky 9th Ed. textbook. These are very detailed and easy to understand notes on Chapter 3 that I made myself. Headings and bullets make it easy to read, and I assure you there is enough

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Chapter 3 – Criteria: Standards for Decision Making
-criteria: standards used to help make evaluative judgments
- there are disagreements about what criteria to use and varying
operational definitions associated with each criterion
- decisions are made based on criteria
Conceptual vs. Actual Criteria
-conceptual criterion: the theoretical standard that researchers seek
to understand
ocannot be measured
oe.g. a successful college student experiences intellectual growth,
emotional growth, and is a good citizen
-actual criterion: the operational or actual standard that researchers
measure or assess
oare measures of the conceptual criteria
oe.g. intellectual growth can be measured by GPA, emotional
growth can be measured by a student adviser’s opinion of the
student’s maturation, and citizenship can be measured by the
number of volunteer organizations a student is part of
- want to obtain a reasonable estimate of the conceptual criterion by
selecting one or more actual criteria we think are appropriate
Criterion Deficiency, Relevance, and Contamination
-criterion deficiency: the part of the conceptual criterion that is not
measured by the actual criterion
oe.g. students begin a class with differing level of knowledge of
the subject, therefore someone with more prior knowledge will
get a higher GPA, but that does not mean they experienced more
intellectual growth than another student
-criterion relevance: the degree of overlap or similarity between the
conceptual criterion and the actual criterion
-criterion contamination: the part of the actual criterion that is
unrelated to the conceptual criterion
obias is the extent to which actual criteria systematically or
consistently measure something other than the conceptual
oerror is the extent to which the actual criteria is not related to
anything at all
ohard to anticipate contaminating factors
oe.g. students in easier majors will have higher GPAs, but that
does not mean they have experienced more intellectual growth,
this is bias because it affects the actual criterion but not the
conceptual criterion
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Job Analysis
-job analysis: a formal procedure by which the content of a job is
defined in terms of the tasks performed and human qualifications
needed to perform the job
- annual job analyses have ranged from $150 000 to $4 million in large
- job analysis is the first step in many areas of IO psychology
Sources of Job Information
-subject matter expert (SME): a person knowledgeable about a topic
who can serve as a qualified information source
- job incumbents, job supervisors, and job analysts are SMEs
- job analysts are used when comparisons are needed across many jobs
and when the relationship among a set of jobs need to be understood
- job incumbents and supervisors are best sources of descriptive job
Job Analysis Procedures
-task: the lowest level of analysis in the study of work; a basic
component of work (such as typing for a secretary)
-position: a set of tasks performed by a single employee (the position
of secretary is often represented by the tasks of typing, filing, and
-job: a set of similar positions in the organization
-job family: a grouping of similar jobs in an organization (the jobs of
secretary, receptionist, and data entry are in the job family clerical)
-task-oriented procedure: a procedure or set of operations in job
analysis designed to identify important or frequently performed tasks
as a means of understanding the work performed
otasks are the basic unit of analysis for understanding a job
otask statements are concise expressions of tasks performed
onumber of tasks required to describe most jobs typically is
between 300 and 500
oSMEs are asked to rate task statements on a series of scales
such as frequency, importance, difficulty, and consequence of
oFunctional Job Analysis (FJA): a method of job analysis that
describes the content of jobs in terms of People, Data, and
obtains information as to what a worker does and how a
task is performed
tasks are rated along the 3 dimensions of People (worker
needs interpersonal resources such as sensitivity,
compassion), Data (worker needs mental resources such as
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