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Chapter 6 Notes This is for Psych 2060, taken online, for the Muchinsky 9th Ed. textbook. These are very detailed and easy to understand notes on Chapter 6 that I made myself. Headings and bullets make it easy to read, and I assure you there is enough

Course Code
PSYCH 2060
Hayden Woodley

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Chapter 6 – Organizational Learning
- jobs are continuously changing, weakening the meaning of a
- there is now greater relative importance placed on skill
- organizations and their employees must continuously learn new
skills to adapt to a rapidly changing business world
-training: the process through which the knowledge and skills of
employees are enhanced
- in 2002, $60 billion was spent on training and development
activities in US firms with 100+ employees
- new position of Chief Learning Officer, same level of importance
as CFO or COO
- 50% of an employee’s knowledge and skills become outdated
every 30-60 months, compared with 12-15 years in the 1970s
Learning and Task Performance
-learning: the process by which change in knowledge or skills is
acquired through education or experience
- skill acquisition is segmented into 3 phases
-declarative knowledge: a body of knowledge about facts and
oinvolves memorizing and reasoning processes that allow an
individual to attain a basic understanding of the task
omust devote nearly all attention to understanding and
performing the task
operforming the task is slow and prone to error
-knowledge compilation: the body of knowledge acquired as a
result of learning
ointegrate sequences of cognitive and motor processes
required to perform the task
ovarious methods of simplifying or streamlining the task are
tried and evaluated
operformance is faster and more accurate
oprocedures are moved from short-term to long-term
-procedural knowledge: a body of knowledge about how to use
information to address issues and solve problems
oindividual has automatized the skill
ocan perform task with efficiency and little attention and
minimal impairment
- three major classes of abilities are important for performance in
the phases of skill acquisition

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most important in declarative knowledge phase
as attentional demands decrease, importance of g is
operceptual speed abilities
important for when individual moves from
declarative to procedural stage
critical for processing information faster and more
opsychomotor ability
performance in final stage of skill acquisition is
limited by this
determines final level of task performance in
procedural knowledge phase
e.g. coordination
- learning to perform tasks depends on a complex set of factors
that affect gains in performance as well as duration of
- three characteristics of people who are regarded as experts on a
topic versus novices
oproceduralization and automaticity
proceduralization: a set of condition rules; e.g. if
condition A exists, then action B is needed
automaticity: a state of rapid performance that
requires little cognitive effort
experts know things as well as when that knowledge
is applicable
experts are better at relating information in cause-
and-effect sequences
omental models: the way in which knowledge is organized
experts’ mental models are qualitatively better
because they contain more diagnostic cues for
detecting meaningful patterns in learning
experts have more complex knowledge structures,
resulting in faster solution times
ometa-cognition: an individual’s knowledge of and control
over his cognitions
experts have a greater understanding of the
demands of a task and their own capabilities
- trait-like vs. state-like individual difference
otrait-like: stable overtime, not specific to a certain task or
situation; e.g. cognitive ability, personality
ostate-like: task specific

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self-efficacy: a sense of personal control and being
able to master one’s environment, reflected in the
belief that “I can do this”, feeling “up” for a task
The Pretraining Environment
- supportive supervisors help trainees believe that training will be
- supportive supervisors discussed upcoming training courses with
employees, established training goals, encouraged employees
- trainees who expected follow-up activity or assessment after
training are more likely to transfer what they learned back to the
- trainees who have many limitations on the job have lower
motivation to learn because they cannot apply new skills back to
their job
Assessing Training Needs
-organizational analysis: a phase of training needs analysis
directed at determining whether training is a viable solution to
organizational problems, and if so, where in the organization
training should be directed
oexamines systemwide factors that facilitate or retard
transfer of skill from training to the job
-task analysis: a phase of training needs analysis directed at
identifying which tasks in a job should be targeted for improved
odevelopment of task statements
e.g. from the job of a secretary: sorts
correspondence, forms, and reports to facilitate filing
them alphabetically
odevelopment of KSAs and relevant tasks
knowledge body of information learned through
education or experience that is relevant to job
skill specific behaviours that may be enhanced
through training, e.g. skill in dribbling a basketball,
driving a car, repairing a damaged object
ability cognitive or physical attributes that are
primarily genetically determined, e.g. artistic ability,
musical ability
establish the KSAs needed to perform certain tasks
odevelopment of training programs from the KSA-Task links
linkages provide the basis for developing training
programs to enhance the KSAs that are critical to job
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