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Lecture

psych 2060 chapter 9.doc

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2060
Professor
Hayden Woodley

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Psychology 2060: Chapter 9
Motivation
What is Work Motivation?
- “To be motivated means to be moved to do something”
-Motivation involves the energy that an individual applies to work
- An internal set of discretionary, psychological processes that
1. Arouse,
2. Direct, and
3. Maintain attention and behavior toward attaining a goal
- Mitchell and Daniels (2003)
- Highlighted how these 3 psychological processes operate
1. Arousal
- May be brought about by an unfilled need or some discrepancy between your current and desired or
expected state
2. Direction
- Focus of arousal, creating a goal, and resulting behavior
3. Intensity
- The maintenance of attention and behavior towards attaining a goal
- Depends on the importance and attainability of the goal
- These three processes impact our behavior in 4 ways:
- Focus our attention on a particular task, goal or behavior
- Define the amount of effort we put in and how long we persist in the task
- Define our task strategies which affect the way we do that task or behavior
- Motivational levels and motivators vary across individuals and within individuals
Target Behavior of Motivation
- Organizations interested in understanding how to motivate OCB behaviors
- Cause its beneficial to the company
- Grant 2009
- Noted finding ways of motivating employees “more helpful and giving- to care about contributing to other
people and the organization” or prosocial motivation, is one of the primary concerns of many managers
Theories of Motivation
- There is “no agreed upon integrative theory of motivation”
- Many different theories
- Textbook explores Kanfer et al.’s organizational framework for motivation
- Identified the 3 Cs of work motivation
1. Content (person)
2. Context (situation/domains)
3. Change (time)
Needs Theory
- Based on the notion that people are striving to fulfill their needs
- Striving involves directed attention, effort and persistence
-Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs Theory
- One of the first theories of general motivation
- Outlines 5 categories of human need arranged in order of importance, such that when basic level (lower lev-
el) needs are met, higher-level needs emerge and drive behavior
- Argued that when basic (lower levels) needs are met, higher level needs emerge and drive behavior
1. Physiological Needs:
- Include the basic elements of human survival
- Appetite, thirst, maintaining homeostasis within the body
2. Safety Needs
- Involve the need for a safe, predictable and orderly world
- Person is motivated to avoid pain and danger
3. Love, affection and belongingness needs
- Needs involve a need for affectionate relationships with others
- Both giving and receiving love, and a sense of belonging
4. Esteem needs:
- Entail a need for stable and high evaluation of oneself
- Self esteem and esteem from others
5. Self-actualization needs:
- highest need
- involves desire to grow and develop in order to become everything one is capable of becoming
- Maslow
- When all needs are satisfied one can become creative and healthy
- Reaching self actualization is uncommon in society
- There is little research to support Maslows theory
- “hierarchy” been criticized because lower level needs may be surpassed in favor for higher needs
McClelland’s (1961) Need Theory
- Focused on 3 specific needs
1. Need for achievement
- involves the need to be successful
- need to avoid failure
- people with high need for achievement select tasks with a moderate level of difficulty
- people with low level of achievement choose easy tasks/avoid them
- they fear failure
2. Need for affiliation
- tendency to want to be liked or accepted by others
- Strive for friendship
- People with high need for affiliation prefer to work in groups
3. Need for power
- The need to stand out publicly in some way, do something important, have an influence over others
-McCelland’s Theory:
- 3 needs (need for achievement, affiliation and power) motivate behaviors and performance by directing at-
tention, increasing effort and increasing persistence
- McCelland and Boyatzis (1982)
- found that high need for achievement and high need for power and low need for affiliation was predictive
success in managerial role
Putting McCelland’s Theory into Action

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Description
Psychology 2060 Chapter 9MotivationWhat is Work MotivationTo be motivated means to be moved to do somethingMotivation involves the energy that an individual applies to workAn internal set of discretionary psychological processes that 1Arouse 2Direct and 3Maintain attention and behavior toward attaining a goalMitchell and Daniels 2003Highlighted how these 3 psychological processes operate1ArousalMay be brought about by an unfilled need or some discrepancy between your current and desired or expected state2DirectionFocus of arousal creating a goal and resulting behavior3IntensityThe maintenance of attention and behavior towards attaining a goalDepends on the importance and attainability of the goalThese three processes impact our behavior in 4 waysFocus our attention on a particular task goal or behaviorDefine the amount of effort we put in and how long we persist in the taskDefine our task strategies which affect the way we do that task or behaviorMotivational levels and motivators vary across individuals and within individualsTarget Behavior of MotivationOrganizations interested in understanding how to motivate OCB behaviorsCause its beneficial to the companyGrant 2009Noted finding ways of motivating employees more helpful and giving to care about contributing to other people and the organization or prosocial motivation is one of the primary concerns of many managersTheories of MotivationThere is no agreed upon integrative theory of motivationMany different theoriesTextbook explores Kanfer et als organizational framework for motivationIdentified the 3 Cs of work motivation 1Content person2Context situationdomains3Change timeNeeds TheoryBased on the notion that people are striving to fulfill their needsStriving involves directed attention effort and persistenceMaslows 1943 Hierarchy of Needs Theory
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