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Chapter 3 ed psych.doc

4 Pages

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Psychology 2062A/B
Patrick Brown

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Chapter 3- Moral, Personal and Psychosocial Development Psychosocial development: process by which a persons sense of self emerges as the result of interactions between his or her social and personal side Moral development: the mechanism by which children and adolescents learn the diff between right and wrong Moral judgment: childrens conceptions of rules and the respect that children acquire for these rules Intentionality: whether of not am an immoral act was intended to deceive someone Moral realism MR: 2-7 stage in which rules are taken literally and absolutely and must be replaced Objective responsibility: being responsible for ones transgressions, regardless of the intentions behind them MR Heteronomous morality: morals are regarded as sacred and fixed as created and being handed down by authority figures and as being alterable only by authority figures MR Expiatory punishment: punishment that is strong and arbitrary and thereby allows the wrongdoer to expiate or pay penance for rule-breaking MR Retributive justice: punishment is morally necessary to make up or pay for the transgression and thus to prevent a relapse MR Adult restraint: the childs perception that adult authority imposes respect for given orders and rules and that laws themselves must be avenged when broken MR Immanent justice: idea that if you do something bad will happen to you MR Mutuality M:7-11 equality, reciprocity and cooperation between people, cooperation, mutual respect Distributive justice: way of treating everyone the same and restoring equality M Autonomy A: 11-15 rules are seen as social conventions set by mutual agreement and changeable through mutual agreement Autonomous morality: morals are regarded as rational parts of a system of legality and are seen as made by people and able to be changed by people A Equity: not automatically treating everyone exactly the same but rather taking into account each individuals particular circumstances A Selmans levels: has 5 levels Level 0= 3-6 children confuse their own perspective with those of others Level 1= 5-9 children realize that other children have social thoughts and feelings different from their own, unable to understand them Level 2= 7-12 they consider and reflect on others attitudes and feelings but are unable to consider their and others feelings at the same time Level 3- 10-15 they view their own and other childrens thoughts and feelings mutually and simultaneously Level 4= adulthood, recognize a general social viewpoint exists that goes beyond the perspectives of the individual child Moral reasoning: created by Lawrence Kohlberg, stages of reasoning achieved by encountering moral dilemmas which are situations in which a choice must be made between two desirable or two underirable alternatives where no choice is either absolutely right or wrong with 6 stages and 3 levels Level 1- preconventional moral reasoning: focus on their own interests to the exclusion of the interests of others, right and wrong is based on doing what is good for them, avoiding punishment Stage 1- punishment-obedience orientation: limited in their own actions only by the fear of punishment, without appropriate role models and socializing agents, some children may never leave this stage Stage 2-personal-reward orientation: try to strike up some sort of deal with the druggist or else make a deal with law enforcement, those who never progress beyond it may well choose to spend their lives engaged in organized crime or in a career considered to be with out Level 2-conventional moral reasoning: focus on the social perspective takes into consideration the viewpoints of others Stage 3-good-person orientation: being nice, being approved, pleasing others, appropriate behaviour Stage 4- law and order orientation: respecting authority, doing ones duty and maintaining social order Level 3 postconventional moral reasoning: not attained until the high school years and even then not attained by many Stage 5- social- contract orientation: laws are necessary, relative rather than absolute, laws are not carved in stone Stage 6- universal ethical principle orientation: clear vision of abstract moral principles such as justice and fairness, right is abstract Limitations of moral reasoning: moral reasoning and behaving morally are not the same thing, does not guarantee that moral behaviour will occur, overlapping between stages, occasional tendency to appear to move in backward direction Gilligans issues of gender: women and men use different approaches to making moral decisions, male= morality of justice, female =morality of caring, in adolescence, girls lose their willingness to express their views in settings where students of both genders are present Selfish morality:stage in which female children focus on exclusively on themselves Conventional morality: transition stage where female children progress from selfish to social morality Social morality: stage in which female children believe it is wrong to act in their own interests rather than in the interest of others Principled morality: stage in which female children learn that neither their own or others interest should be ignored Defining issues test: student given moral dilemmas to resolve, found older ppl score higher than younger ones, better educated ppl score higher, no difference between people in diff religious groups Moral education: formal and informal efforts to help students grow morally and emotionally, encourage students to see others perspectives, listen to one another ect Plus-one matching: argument presentation techniques based on the premise that people cannot skip a stage in moral development, 3 distinct components 1. moral knowing 2. moral attitudes 3. moral behaviour, provide students to be responsible for one another, relate to students life Personal development: the way young people in
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