Psychology 2075 Lecture 2: Perspectives On Sexuality

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Human Sexuality – Lecture 2 - Perspectives On Sexuality
Sex
What is sex?
Past definition: penetrable vaginal sex
Presently, thought as complex
Why do we learn about perspectives?
Changes how we view things, think and perspective
Human Sexuality
Influenced by interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural,
ethical, legal, historical, religious and spiritual factors.
How we express and experience things
Tied to our SEX and GENDER
Example: Women are thought to be easy, gentle, under spoken unlike men
Includes our erotic feelings, fantasies, desires
Sexual behaviour = Behaviour that produces arousal and increases the chance of
orgasm
Example: Masturbation
Sexual behaviour can be:
Pleasurable/Not pleasurable
Voluntary/Not voluntary
For various purposes (reproduction, financial)
Example: Non pleasurable is rape, workplace harassment, sexual dysfunctions,
and different types of sex
What is YOUR own sexuality?
Permissiveness
Factors that can influence your decision:
● Divinity
Depending if it’s right or wrong
● Community
Thinking of the greater good
● Autonomy
Thinking of freedom and flexibility
Rights to freedom of individual
Why Study Sexuality
Information Knowledge
Broader Understanding
Attitudes and actions towards others understanding of others sexual beliefs
within cultural context
Personal Use
Choices we make regarding how we express our own sexuality
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Condoms in Schools
Do you think this would increaseor decrease sexual behaviour? Blake et al., (2003).
American Journal of Public Health.
Encouraging students to have sex in school
Giving them a safe method to utilise
Students were NOT more likely to report ever having sexual intercourse, BUT...
Sexually active students were significantly more likely to have used a condom at
intercourse (72% vs 56%).
Sexuality in Canada
Immigrants represent 20% of population (50% in Toronto)
Values of immigrants often differ:
Arranged marriages
Differences in sexual education
Female circumcision
Sexual attitudes and behaviours of immigrants are more conservative than the rest of
society
First age of intercourse:
75% Canadians (20-24) before 20 years of age
<50% of Immigrants (20-24)
Sexuality in Canada
Canadians are more liberal than Americans
80% of Canadians accept premarital sex
Compared to 60% of Americans...
Acceptance of same-sex marriage (61 vs 33%)
Sexual Satisfaction?
Related to gender equality
Higher levels of satisfaction
Men reporting higher levels than women
Our practices are also influenced by politics and the law
Liberal vs Conservative government
Examples: 2005 legalized same sex marriage, age consent, sex practices have
changed (many were prohibited)
Sexuality in Canada
Cultural variations in sexuality
Women going topless in public (everything off)
Gwen Jacobs – 19 Year Old
Arrested since she took off her top because it was hot, a mother with children
called 911
Wouldn’t happen if she was a man
Considered sexual
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Acceptable in Australia and many European countries
Gwen Jacobs—civil rights issue
Is it sexual or natural?
Not indecent
Natural but there’s tendency to see women as sexual
Has anything changed now 20 years later?
A bit, it’s not illegal to take off your shirt but society views negatively upon women
taking off their top
People are starting free the nipple
Why not?
Looked down upon on society
Society was raised that it was okay for only men to take off their top
Perspectives
What is a perspective?
○ Viewpoint
Context for beliefs, opinions, experiences
Does your perspective change?
What does your perspective influence?
How can you change your perspective?
Perspectives
Biological/Evolutionary perspectives
○ Biology
○ Evolution
Cross species perspective
Socio-cultural perspectives
Cross-cultural perspective
Religion, Science and Media
Psychological perspectives
Biological Perspective
Role of biological factors in sexuality
Genes, hormones, nervous system
Sex serves a biological function (reproduction)
Pleasure associated with sex is functional.
Pleasure encourages us to DO IT
When people orgasm, they can increase or lower threshold to achieve
more orgasms
Why do people enjoy pain?
Pleasure and pain overlap in brain
Evolutionary Perspective
Darwinian Natural Selection = “survival of the fittest”
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Document Summary

Human sexuality lecture 2 - perspectives on sexuality. Changes how we view things, think and perspective. Influenced by interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, ethical, legal, historical, religious and spiritual factors. Example: women are thought to be easy, gentle, under spoken unlike men. Sexual behaviour = behaviour that produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm. Example: non pleasurable is rape, workplace harassment, sexual dysfunctions, and different types of sex. Attitudes and actions towards others understanding of others sexual beliefs within cultural context. Choices we make regarding how we express our own sexuality. Encouraging students to have sex in school. Giving them a safe method to utilise. Students were not more likely to report ever having sexual intercourse, but Sexually active students were significantly more likely to have used a condom at intercourse (72% vs 56%). Immigrants represent 20% of population (50% in toronto) Sexual attitudes and behaviours of immigrants are more conservative than the rest of society.

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