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Lecture 6

Psychology 2075 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Corpus Luteum, Menstruation, Semen Analysis


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2075
Professor
Chris Roney
Lecture
6

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Lecture 6:
Sex Hormones: Menstruation and Menopause
I) Overview of menstruation, menopause
Estrogen levels will drop and it will
signal menstruation.
The disolving processes of the
corpus luteum is the trigger of the
production of progesterone and
estrogen to start menstruation.
Mensturation is usually 14 days
after ovulation.
The range of length of cycle is
between 24 days up to 42 days. 28
days is most common.
Cranin et al. The study followed
women for over a year, and looked at
a number of things. How often
women would have a major
fluctuations than how long their
cycles usually were. 70% of the women
had a cycle range of 7 days or more.
40% of the women had cycles of 7
days. One week difference between the
shortest and the longest cycle.
Age effect
Small et al (2006) for women who
have longer cycles they show higher
fertility.
Are there parallels in men?
- Kruse and Gotman, they do find testosterones cycles in men. Two cycles, they
found one cycle within a week and they also found a biweekly cycle that happens
every month. There are also seasonal cycles, fall is high testosterones for men and
the summer is low testosterones. Guys also have cycles during the day, where in
the morning testosterones levels are highest and it goes down throughout the day.
Men are as variable in emotions as women are. For men sperm count gets lower
which cause a low chance for perceiving.
Menopause:
- There is a life span on menstruation, starts from puberty and then it hits
menopause which happens at an average age of 47 Y/O. takes 15 years to hit it.
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- Drotva et al. they found regional
differences in Europe, some had higher
ages for menopause and some had earlier
ages for menopause. Smoking is has a
stronger influence on menopause, were
smokers hit menopause at an earlier age.
Obesity and low level of physical activity
also causes earlier menopause. How early
menstruation starts tells how early your
menopause is. Women who has more kids
predicts a later menopause. Use of
hormonal contraceptive did not have any
evidence on effecting menopause.
II) Menstrual Symptoms: Premenstrual
Syndrome (PMS)
There are menstrual symptoms caused from the fluctuation of the hormones but
they are not the same as premenstrual symptoms which is found that is caused by
brain chemistry fluctuation.
Contraceptive hormones pills could solve the pain problem for the menstrual
symptoms but does not help for the premenstrual symptoms.
Some women take antidepressant pills for extreme premenstrual symptoms.
(Premenstrual dysphoria).
III) Menopausal Symptoms: Hormone Replacement?
A lot of women who has menopausal symptoms can be treated with hormonal
replacement. They found that it causes cancer so they stopped the study and
experiments for ethical issues. But some other studies showed that if you did it for a
certain amount of time then it will not cause anything. But the cancer society said
that it is not allowed because it causes higher risks for breast cancer. It is unclear
that how major they are because there was no long term studies about it.
IV)Do women need to menstruate?
70% of the women who take the contraceptive injections (depoprevira) for a long
time did not menstruate at all later on.
The placebo pills in the contraceptive pills that creates an artificial period was a
marketing plan to sell the product because when women found out that they will not
menstruate they did not buy the product.
From Szarewski et al. (2012)
i. Does your monthly period effects your life, and 30% of the women said yes.
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