Psychology 2075 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Sexually Transmitted Infection, Sept, Naturopathy

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Published on 11 Nov 2015
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2075
HumanSexualityLecture9Conception,Pregnancy,andChildbirth
BirthTrends
● Averageageof1
st
baby
○ 1980:25.9
○ 2005:29.2
■ Whyarepeopleconceivingatanolderage?
● Societalstandards
● Education
● Job
● Qualityoflife
● Canada:lowbirthrate
○ 10.28births/1000people
○ Increaseinpopulationduetoimmigration
● HighestbirthrateNunavutandNorthwestTerritories
● LowestbirthrateScotiaandNewBrunswick
TeenagePregnancy
● 2004:4.2%oflivebirths
○ DoubledinUSA
● Halfofteenagepregnanciesendinabortion
○ Eitherplannedornotplannedtobeateenparent
● Factorsincreasinglikeliness?
● Singleparentfamilies
● Lowlevelsofchurchattendance
● Sexualorientation?
Conception
● Unionofaspermcellandanovum
● OvacarryXchromosomes
● SpermcarryXorYchromosomes
○ Ychromosomediesfaster
○ Xchromosomeisslower,butlongerlongevity
● Girls=XX
● Boys=XY
Conception
● Spermisejaculatedintovagina
● 200400millionspermonlyonefertilizestheovum
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● 1/10000makeittofallopiantube
○ ½godownwrongfallopiantube(withoutovum)
● Fertilizationoccursinthefallopiantube
○ Barriers:acidityofvagina,bodyposition,mobility
○ Afterfertilizationgoesdowntocervix
Conception
● Howdospermfindtheirway?Smell?
○ Smellthroughchemoattractants,ifitcannotsmell,godownwrongtube
● Ovumreleaseschemoattractants
● Spermcontainreceptors
● Thewinningsperm?
○ If2spermgetintoovum,itterminates
● Ovaissurroundedbyzonapellucida
● Spermsecretedhyaluronidasewhichassistsinpenetratinglayer
TheSmallWindow
● Afterovulation,ovumsurvivesfor1224hours
● Afterejaculation,spermcansurvivefor2448hours
○ Basedonspermsupportivemucous
○ Capacitation!
■ Headchangeandhowitmoves(sperm)
● Conceptionmostlikelyimmediatelyafterovulation
● Fertileperiod=46daysaroundovulation
● Determiningfertileperiod:(Whenconceptioncanoccur)
○ BasalBodyTemperature
○ LuteinizingHormone
○ VaginalMucous
BasalBodyTemperature
● Increaseinbodytemperature
○ Measureovulationdip(doneinthemorning)
LuteinizingHormone
● Analyzedviaurineorsaliva
● SurgeinLH1224hourspriortoovulation–identifiesPEAKfertility
● Estrogenalsoindicatesfertiledays
VaginalMucous
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● BEFORE:Thick,whiteandcloudyduringmostphasesofcycle
● Precedingovulation:
○ AFTER:Thin,slipperyandclear
○ Increaseinvolumeofmucous
○ Lastsforafewdays
○ “ladder”stringinessforspermtoswimup
OptimizingChances!
● FrequencyofCoitus
○ Every24hours?
○ Every3648hours?
● Recommendation:Onceadayortwiceduringtheweekofovulation
Implantation
● Thedevelopingembryocanimplantinoneofmultiplepossiblelocations
● Ectopicpregnancy=implantationoccursoutsideofuterus
● Emergencysituation
Infertility
● Failuretoconceive
● Persistsforlongerthanayear
● Likelinessincreaseswith:
○ Age
○ Alsoobesity,alcoholuseandsexuallytransmittedinfections
● 16%ofcouplesinCanada(aged1844)havefertilityproblems
○ Doubleratesfrom1992
○ Oldpeopletrytoconceive
● Aged1829
● 1884:Rateswere5%
● 2010:Ratewere13%
MaleFertilityProblems
● Lowspermcount*mostcommon
○ Lessthan20millionperejaculation
○ Genes,age,heat,stress,toxins,frequentejaculation
■ Scrotumlikesheatof34degreescelsius
● Irregularlyshapedsperm
○ Don’tdowellintermsoftryingtofertilize
● Lowspermmotilitytooslow
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