Psychology 2075 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Pelvic Brim, Amniotic Sac, Prenatal Development

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HumanSexualityLecture10Contraception
CriticalPeriod
● Specificperiodduringwhichorgansaredeveloping
○ Fromcongenitaltofunctional
○ Brain:takesentireprenataldevelopment

Childbirth
● Early9
th
monthfetusheadsettlesintopelvicbrim
● =droppingorquickening
● Germinalstage:hormoneHCGincrease
● Zygoteimplantsinliningofendometrium>developmentofplacenta
● Embryonicstage:headtotoe–proximaldistal
○ Growinlastfewweeks
○ Dropdowninpelvicbrim=calleddropping/lightening
Positioningofbabyisimportant
■ Headfirst:normalideal
■ Buttfirst:breach–csectionmustbedone
Itwouldbebiggerformom
● Vagpreferlessdiameter
● Complicationswouldshowifbreached

Beginningoflabour
● Bloodyshow–cervicalmucousplug
○ Mightbedislodgedandappearblood
● Waterbreakingamnioticsacbursts
○ Happensin1/10women
○ Babyneedtogetoutatacertainpoint
● Labourbeginswithinadayofruptureoftheamnioticsac
● BraxtonHickscontractions
Falselabourcontractions
○ Contractionsarefalseitdoesn’tcausecervixtodilatebutpullsitapartwhichis
whyitispainful
● Progesteronewithdrawaltheory
high
● Threestagesofchildbirth

FirstStage
● Uterinecontractionseffaceanddilatecervix–knowdefinitions
● Cervixdilatesto10cm
● 224hours
● Transitionàbaby’sheadmovesintovaginalcanal
● thecervixbecomesalmostfullydilated
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● Theheadofthefetusmovestothebirthcanal
● 30minutes
● Nausea,chillsandintensepain

SecondStage
● Cervixfullydilatedto10cm
● Visiblebulgingoftheperineum
● The‘pushing’stage
● Lastsafewminutestoafewhours
● Babymovesintovagina
● Contractionspropelbabydownvaginalcanal
● Headofthebabyisvisible=crowning
● Episiotomy–perineumiscutandcanexperiencetearing–usedtobeusedtoprevent
tearingbutisnoteffective
● Useofpreventativemeasureisdecreasing
● 21%ofvaginaldeliveries(2009)

ThirdStage
● Placentalstage
● Lastsfromafewminutestooveranhour
● Placentadetachesfromwallsofuterus
● Afterbirthisexpelled
● Mightbeaccompaniedbyseveralcontractions
● Episiotomyissewnup

BirthingOptions
AnesthetizedChildbirth
Tranquilizers,Barbiturates,Scopolamine,Pudendalblock,spinalblock,epidural–most
common(needleinspinetopreventfromfeeling)
● Minimizediscomfort
● Decreasestrengthofuterinecontractions
● Increasethedurationoflabour

NaturalChildbirth
● Usebody’snaturalresponsetopain
● Womenincontrol=lesstrauma

CaesareanSection
● Deliveryviasurgery
● Reasons:
● Babyistoolarge,pelvistoosmall
● Cervixisnotdilatingafteratrialoflabour
● Umbilicalcordprolapse
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● Excessivebleeding
 
BirthDifficulties
● PretermandLowBirthweightInfants
● Bornbefore37weeksgestation<2500grams
● Vulnerablegroupofinfants
Stillbirth
● Infantisborndead
● Duetofetalabnormalities,infection,pregnancycomplications6.4stillbirths/1000total
births

PostDepressionpartum
● Markedbyrecuperationandbondingwithchild
● Hormonelevelsreturntonormal
● Womanfeelsexhausted
● Discomfortwithepisiotomyorperinealtearing/stitches
● Mightexperience“blues”ordepressedstate

PostpartumDepression
● Mildformcalled“babyblues”
Shortlasting
● 1/10women–mightlastmonthsnowto1/5
● Prolongeddepressedstatethatinhibitsdailyfunctioningandcaringforselfand/orbaby
● Treatmentmightinclude:counselling,nutrition/vitamintherapy,pharmaceuticals,
antidepressants

PostpartumDysphoriaorPsychosis
● Severeform
● Strongselfdoubtandlossofconfidenceasamother
● Womanenvisionsharmingchildand/orself
● Rare
● ALWAYSrequiresintervention

Breastfeeding
● Reducesbaby’sriskofinfectionandallergies
● Prolactin–milkproductionandOxytocin–milkejectionstimulatedthroughsuckling
● Stimulatesuterinecontractions
● Weightloss–significantweightloss
● PublicHealthGuidelines:breastfeedexclusivelyforfirst6months
● Only14%ofbabiesinCanadaareexclusivelybreastfedforfirst6months
● Bondingmomentbetweenmomandchild
● Righttemperature
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