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Lecture

Chapter 16 Summary of Ch 16


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2080A/B
Professor
Patrick Brown

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Psychology Test And Measurement 2080
Monday, November 22nd 2010
Lecture 16
Notes
Chapter 16: Testing in Counseling Psychology
Measuring Interests
In this chapter, we examine the contribution of psychological tests to the selection
of and preparation for a career
Psychological tests can help people select the right career for them
The first step in the identification of an appropriate career path is the evaluation of
interests
In the nearly 90 years since the introduction of interest inventories, missions of
people have received feedback about their own interests to help them make wise
career choices
The first interest inventory, introduced in 1921, was the Carnegie Interest
Inventory
When the Mental Measurements Yearbook was published in 1939, it discussed 15
different interest measures
The two most widely used interest tests wee introduced relatively early: The
Strong Vocational Interest Blank in 1927, and the Kuder Preference Survey in
1939
Today there are more than 80 interest inventories, however the Strong remains
one of the most widely used tests in research and practice
The Strong Vocational Interest Blank
Shortly after WWI, Strong and his colleagues began to examine the activities that
members of different professions liked and disliked
They came to realize that people in different professional groups had different
patterns of interests
Strong also found that people in similar professions shared similar hobbies, liked
the same types of entertainment, and read the same sorts of books and magazines
With this research as a base, Strong set out to create a test that would match the
interests of a subject to the interests and values of a criterion group of people who
were happy with the careers they had chosen
This procedure is called criterion keying, or the criterion-group approach
The test they created with this method was the SVIB
In preliminary studies of the test, individuals from different occupations
responded to approximately 400 items dealing with likes and dislikes related to
these occupations and to leisure activities
The criterion keying then determined how the interests of the subjects resembled
those of the criterion group
In the revised 1966 version, the 399 items were related to 54 occupations for men,
and a separate form was presented to women with 32 different occupations
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Items in the SVIB were weighted according to how frequently an interest
occurred in a particular occupational group as opposed to how frequently it
occurred in the general population
Raw scores were converted to standard scores with a mean of 50 and a standard
deviation of 10
Each criterion group contained a normative sample of approximately 300 people,
a good amount
The SVIB demonstrated good reliability and validity coefficients
It was also determined that patterns of interest remain relatively stable over time
It was also determined that interest patterns are fairly well established by age 17
However, despite the widespread acceptance of the SVIB, critics began to cite a
gender bias in the scales because there were different tests for men and women
Others complained about the lack of theory associated with the test
The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory
In 1974, Campbell published a new version of the SVIB which he called the SCII
The SCII was Campbell’s response to the shortcomings of the SVIB
Items from both men’s and women’s forms of the SVIB emerged into a single
form that included scales devoid of gender bias
For example, the scales for waiter and waitress merged, and items that referred to
gender (eg., salesman) were appropriately modified
In developing the SVIB, Holland had shied away from explaining why certain
individuals liked some fields and disliked others
However, Campbell became interested in Holland’s theory of vocational choice
After many years of study (1975), Holland had postulated that interests express
personality and that people can be classified into one or more of six categories
according to their interests
In addition, the factors could be used for either men or women
When Campbell incorporated Holland’s theory and his six personality factors into
the SCII, he provided a theoretical basis for a new test that the SVIB had lacked
Research has generally supported Holland’s ideas
Holland has summarized 50 years of research supporting the claim that
occupational interests reflect personality
The SCII in its current form is divided into seven parts
The test, which still retains the core of the SVIB, now contains 325 items, to
which a person responds “like,” “dislike,” or “indifferent”
Various agencies provide automated scoring services for the SCII, and most of
them summarize several scores for each profile
The first score is a summary of general themes based on Holland’s six personality
types (eg., types of activities the person enjoys)
The second score summary given in a report is for administrative indexes
Of less personal importance to the test taker, they are needed to ensure that errors
were not made in the administration, scoring, or processing of the test
The third set of scores provides a summary of a person’s basic interests (eg.,
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science score, math score, athletics score)
This information is presented in standardized T scores with a mean of 50 and a
standard deviation of 10
The final set of summary scores given in the SCII profile is for occupational
scales
These scales occupy most of the space on the SCII profile
The profile shows the person’s score for each of 124 occupations, which are
broken down into six general occupational themes
The scoring for occupational scales differs from that for the general theme and
basic interest scales because the occupational scales compares the test taker’s
score with scores of people working in the various professions
The general theme and basic interest scales compare the test taker’s score with
people in general
If you took the SCII, for each scale you would be assigned a score indicating the
degree of similarity-very dissimilar, dissimilar, average, similar, very similar-
between your interests and the interests of people happy in their chosen
occupations
Many of the occupations are divided so that different criterion groups are
provided for men and women (eg., if you are a woman who scores in the “very
similar” category for the occupation of a female social worker, this finding would
suggest that your interests were close to those of women who had been employed
as social workers and enjoyed the profession)
The SCII is no longer used very much because it has been replaced by newer tests
The latest version was released in 1985, with an expanded profile containing 207
occupational scales, 144 of which have been developed since 1977
In addition, special precautions were taken to rule out potential difficulties in
interpretation
For example, one criticism was that the members of the criterion group were older
than those that would be entering into the workplace
In the final SCII, younger and older members of each criterion group were
compared to determine whether the interests and values of the recent entrants into
the workforce differed from those of workers who had been on the job for many
years
The Campbell Interest and Skill Survey
After Strong died, Campbell became the major representative of the SVIB
However, due to a legal dispute between the University of Minnesota (Campbell)
and Stanford University (Strong), the rights to the SVIB came under ownership of
Stanford, and the cumulative work leading up to it came under the ownership of
Campbell
This is why, in 1992, Campbell published the Campbell Interest and Skill Survey
The CISS asks respondents to assess their degree of interest in 200 academic and
occupational topics
Further, it assesses the degree of skill in 120 specific occupations
The system produces an 11 page profile and a 2-page report summary
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