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Chapter 18 Summary of Ch 18

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Western University
Psychology 2080A/B
Patrick Brown

Psychology Test And Measurement 2080ndMonday November 22 2010Lecture 18NotesChapter 18 Testing in Industrial and Business SettingsBasic ConceptsInvolves the application of psychological principles in the workplaceSpecialized field known as industrialorganizational IO psychologySimilar to human resources but IO psychologists establish themselves by the methods they applyEmphasize structured psychological testingRely extensively on research quantitative methods and testing proceduresTwo major areas are personnel psychology and organizational studyPersonnel psychology is the study and practice of job analysis job recruitment employee selection and the evaluation of employee performanceOrganizational psychology considers leadership job satisfaction employee motivation and a variety of other factors surrounding the functioning of organizationsPersonnel PsychologyThe Selection of EmployeesWe begin by reviewing the oldest approach to employee selectionthe employment interviewThe employment interview helps people make selection and promotion decisions in business and industryMost research supports a structured format for the employment interviewStudies have indicated that structured interviews are useful in helping interviewers to reach agreement on their employee decisionsThe loss of flexibility in structured interviewers can therefore be balanced by an increase in reliabilityMetaanalytic investigations have found that structured interviews are twice as valid as unstructured interviewsThe employment interview searches for negative or unfavourable rather than favourable evidence about a personIf negative evidence is found the person will likely not be hired unless there is a high demand for workers and few individuals are available to fill open positionsA study by EC Webster demonstrated the importance of making an impressionAs few as one unfavourable impression was followed by a final rejection rate of 90 This value dropped by 25 when early impressions were favourableWebster and others caution employment interviewers against forming an early bias that might result in rejecting a competent individualNegative factors that commonly lead to the rejection of candidates include poor communication skills lack of confidence or poise low enthusiasm nervousness1 and failure to make eye contactPositive factors include the ability to express oneself selfconfidence and poise enthusiasm the ability to sell oneself and aggressivenessCan you increase your chances of presenting yourself favourably in a job interviewHeimberg Keller and PecaBaker noted that competent performance in a job interview is one of the most important factors in obtaining employmentA good first impression is one of the most important factors in a successful interviewTo make a good impression one needs to wear professional attire and show good grooming project and aura of competence and expertise and give an impression of friendliness or personal warmth through nonverbal cuesGoing too far with these tactics can backfireIn a study by Baron it was found that when two tactics wearing perfume or nonverbal cues such as eye contact were used alone they produced enhanced ratings for applicants but when used together they did notlikely because they caused the applicant to be perceived as manipulativeInterviews remain the primary tool for selecting employeesHowever personnel psychology places a strong emphasis on formal quantitative models and the use of tests for employee selectionBase Rates And Hit Rates For many industrial applications other factors must also be considered such as the amount of information a selection strategy gives you beyond what would be known without itThis can be derived from an analysis of base rates and hit ratesOften tests are used to place individuals into one of two categoriesFor example in a job interview a candidate can be deemed acceptable or unacceptableBecause tests vary in their accuracy test administrators must examine the possibility of erroneously assigning someone to a categoryIf a test is used to make a dichotomous twochoice decision then a cutoff score is usually usedThe score marking the point of decision is called the cutting scoreEstablishing a cutting score does not ensure correct decisionsIf a person meets the cutting score but then fails at the job it can be determined that the test has not done its jobTests can be evaluated by how well they sort people into the right categoriesIn addition to the score on the test the employer must also have some data on how people really do on the jobTo do this the employer must define some criterion for deciding whether job performance has been acceptable or unacceptableUsing these two sets of categories the employer can construct a chart like the one shown below 2
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