Psych 2115A Nov 21 , 2012
Like a quiz on last section with sporadic questions from other sections
Approx 14 questions
Was brought up as a topic ages ago.
Introspectionists – late 1800s – got people to introspect. Fell apart.
o William James
Well known but not a huge introspectionist
Bring one thing to foreground of mind. Like a painting where you focus on
Believed attention could be applied to one, maybe two things
Turn of the 1900s, behaviourists took over
o Did not have time or patience for attention.
o 1950s – behaviourists lost control of things
Beginning of studies on attention
Only had James’s research because no other research had been done
o Attention does not focus on only one thing
Not all or none but more of a sharing of resources
Focus on many things but reduced capacity
o Not needing attention
When one hears one’s name, it does not require much processing even in a
o Lived in England
o Simple processing model
o Stimulus must go through perception processes
Stimulus Perception TERM
If one doesn’t attend to short term memory, it goes away – lose it
o Is there an attentional level prior to short term memory?
o Do we process before short term memory? o Does attention work at perception level or only short term memory?
Cocktail Party Phenomenon
o Having a conversation with one person and ignoring all other auditory stimuli
o Ability to listen to only one thing
o People have mistaken definition because of literature
NOT hearing one’s name
o If we can explain CPP, we can explain a lot about auditory attention
“What makes it possible to listen to one thing and completely ignore
- Intensity – it is possible to ignore a louder voice and attend to softer
- Voice differences – pitch, male voices/female voices,
- Sematic differences – all else equal but maybe one talks about baseball
and the other the stock market
o Old actor – John Amos
Two TVs top/bottom
Same guy so same intensity/voice
He talked about two topics and people distinguished.
o Location is the best cue to allocate auditory attention.
To test attention:
o Must have a way to shift attention,
o Be able to tell if participants are attending to what they are supposed to be attending
o Making sure people are attending to one thing and not another.
o “As message comes in through one ear, I want you to repeat it back to me word for
o Had message through one ear in headphones and participants were shadowing.
o Altered message in right ear
o Wanted to test if people knew/realized that the unattended ear message was being
Are things being altered at perception or short term memory? Perception/Attention
Changed language in other ear
Played tape backwards
Male to female – voice difference
Language/tape backwards – no one noticed
Gender changed – a few noticed
Tones/bells – many noticed
Concluded: you don’t perceive much
- Unattended ear does not make short term memory
- Physical stuff gets through – dramatic changes
o Subtle changes not perceived
- We filter stuff we’re not attending to
o “Early Selection Model”
Next Broadbent Experiment
o Dichotic listening but not shadowing.
o ½ second between numbers
o 3 and 1, 7 and 5, 4 and 8, presented