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Psych 2115A Nov 21st Auditory Attention.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2115A/B
Stephen Lupker

st Psych 2115A Nov 21 , 2012 Final Like a quiz on last section with sporadic questions from other sections Approx 14 questions Auditory Attention  Was brought up as a topic ages ago.  Introspectionists – late 1800s – got people to introspect. Fell apart. o William James  Well known but not a huge introspectionist  Bring one thing to foreground of mind. Like a painting where you focus on one thing  Believed attention could be applied to one, maybe two things  Turn of the 1900s, behaviourists took over o Did not have time or patience for attention. o 1950s – behaviourists lost control of things  Beginning of studies on attention  Only had James’s research because no other research had been done  Broadbent o Attention does not focus on only one thing  Not all or none but more of a sharing of resources  Focus on many things but reduced capacity  Automatic Processes o Not needing attention  When one hears one’s name, it does not require much processing even in a crowd  Broadbent o Lived in England o Simple processing model o Stimulus must go through perception processes SHORT Stimulus  Perception  TERM MEMORY  If one doesn’t attend to short term memory, it goes away – lose it o Is there an attentional level prior to short term memory? o Do we process before short term memory? o Does attention work at perception level or only short term memory?  Cocktail Party Phenomenon o Having a conversation with one person and ignoring all other auditory stimuli o Ability to listen to only one thing o People have mistaken definition because of literature  NOT hearing one’s name o If we can explain CPP, we can explain a lot about auditory attention  “What makes it possible to listen to one thing and completely ignore another?” - Location - Intensity – it is possible to ignore a louder voice and attend to softer one. - Voice differences – pitch, male voices/female voices, - Sematic differences – all else equal but maybe one talks about baseball and the other the stock market o Old actor – John Amos  Two TVs top/bottom  Same guy so same intensity/voice  He talked about two topics and people distinguished. o Location is the best cue to allocate auditory attention.  To test attention: o Must have a way to shift attention, o Be able to tell if participants are attending to what they are supposed to be attending to.  Colin Cherry o Making sure people are attending to one thing and not another. o Headphones  Location cue  No overlap  Dichotic listening o “As message comes in through one ear, I want you to repeat it back to me word for word.”  Shadowing  Broadbent o Had message through one ear in headphones and participants were shadowing. o Altered message in right ear o Wanted to test if people knew/realized that the unattended ear message was being altered  Are things being altered at perception or short term memory?  Perception/Attention  Changed language in other ear  Played tape backwards  Male to female – voice difference  Bells/tones o Findings  Language/tape backwards – no one noticed  Gender changed – a few noticed  Tones/bells – many noticed  Concluded: you don’t perceive much - Unattended ear does not make short term memory - Physical stuff gets through – dramatic changes o Subtle changes not perceived - We filter stuff we’re not attending to o “Early Selection Model”  Next Broadbent Experiment o Dichotic listening but not shadowing. o ½ second between numbers 3 1 7 5 4 8 o 3 and 1, 7 and 5, 4 and 8, presented
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