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Unit 2 Complete

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Psychology 2115A/B
Stephen Lupker

stOctober 1Psych 2115ACognition of the Ear stimulus is movement of air molecules due to a vibration of a physical objectas the object vibrates the molecules compress and spread out rarifyingSends out high pressure and low pressure type of stimulus works towards ear to elicit an auditory response Distance x vs Pressure yTravels at a constant rate of speed under water medium has the same results as in an air medium waves travel faster in waterSound waves1Frequency how many times they repeat themselves in a secondMeasure in cps cycles per second or Hz HertzDistance is regarded as a wave length from peak to peakDirect trade off from length and its frequencyLess peakgreater distance between them and vise versa2AmplitudeHow much energy was put into the stimulusHeight of the sound wave strength Less pressure putting into creating the waveLarger amplitudelouder soundBel scale measures how much oomph was put into that soundDecibel dB one tenth of log scale3PhaseCharacterizes the relationship between multiple sound wavesOne wave going down one wave going up out of phase 180 degrees out of phase with one another360 degrees time between the two peaksParts of the earOuter EarPinna outer ear grab as many sound waves as it can to hear better creates higher probability youll hear that soundAuditory canal tube that goes into the head doesnt lose information increase pressure of sound wavesMiddle EarTympanic membrane ear drum end of auditory canal Puts sound pressure further into head so the ear drum vibrates due to the changing pressure causing sound wavesMalleus incus and stapes dont respond to low frequenciesHear vibrations of jaw bone and fragments of our speech that stuff together gives my sound to me a different sound vs peersInner EarOval window vibratory pressure sent into the inner ear As stapes hits the oval window it gets uid movingSet of canals that coilBasilar membrane allows us to hear separates the two canals tempanic and vestibular canalstOctober 1Psych 2115AOrgan of Cortisits on top of basilar membrane effected by vibrations sends info to the brain so it can be interpreted As the basilar membranegets stimulated by pressure of the ear moves the organ of Corti which is connected to the other part that is connected by hairsOrgan of Corti doesnt move while the one below does the hairs from the top and the bottom are being tugged sheering action gives information the auditory nerve carries to the brainRound window uid inside inner ear compresses absorbs pressure from the uid that doesnt t inside the inner ear Basilar MembraneBehaves differently depending on the frequency of sound lets brain know what the actual frequency of the stimulus isWhen straightened out it gets wider as you go down the direction of the waveAs information from a 1000 Hz sound hits the ear we get a response of the basilar membrane that is idiosyncratic to a 1000 Hz stimulus We have a crest for every different frequency 250 Hz vs 1000 Hz high vs low tone250 Hz travels further down the membrane but doesnt peak as sharply 1000 Hz doesnt go as far down the membrane and peaks more sharplyPsychological Reactions to Hearing1Pitchtonal height of the sound pitch in a mans voice vs womans Higher frequencyhigher pitches isnt a perfect 11 relationshipFrequency doesnt determine pitch entirely intensity plays a minor role2LoudnessDriven by the amplitude pressure put into the soundMore amplitudelouder the soundAlso effected by some degree by pitch3Timbreevery sound we hear has more than one frequency more than one pitch in it pure tones besides a tuning fork is rare in the real world Set of frequencies People dont have the ability to produce pure tonesHarmonics multiples of the basic frequency 16 24 32 etcLoudness same amplitude at different frequencies will sound differentRun experiment to get threshold for various frequenciessame amplitude would produce a threshold sound across frequencies but we get a curveWould create a at line incorrectFrequency x vs Threshold yDifferent thresholds at different frequenciesamplitude does notloudnessAudibility curve threshold of hearing
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