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Psychology 2115A/B
Stephen Lupker

Lecture: 9 November-02-11 2:28 PM Form Perception  A man named Selfridge o Came up with the Pandemonium modal o Process called Demons o The idea is that there has to be a  image demon  Features demon  cognitive demon  Decision demon that make the final decision on what it is and whats going on  All of theses demons are shouting what this and the cognitive demon listens and if its what its looking out they then start to shout, then final the decision demon comes in and gives the final decision Selfridge envisioned the mind as a collection of tiny demons, each of whom responds to a name -- or something close to it -- being called out by other demons. When one thinks it is being called, it begins to yell out to other demons. The more certain it is that it is being called, the louder it yells, until some other demon thinks it is being called in turn. And so on. Selfridge called this pandemonium. He used this idea to explain and model the way perceptual systems recognize stuff. For example, the letter R has one vertical line, a "belly" on the upper right, and a "leg" on the lower right. When "feature demons" whose names are "vertical," "belly," and "leg" (and others with names like "one," "upper right," and "lower right") hear their names being called, they begin to to call to the "cognitive demons." The cognitive demons named B and D, for example, may each prick up their ears, since they are "sensitized" to such calls as are given out by the vertical and belly demons. K may be listening, because it is listening for the calls of the vertical and leg demons. But only the R demon recognizes the calls of all three. So while B, D, and K may be calling out to the "decision demon," it will be R who calls the loudest.  For the next 10 years there was a lot of research on what the features were  They would have a confusion research, they would briefly show a letter up on the screen and then you would have to tell them what it is  This would occurr over and over again  They need to get errors and confusion  To do this they showed them faster and faster  What you would end up with is a giant matrix  Anything on the negative diagonal they didn't want as it was correct answers, they only wanted wrong answers  The problem with all this research was that they didn't tell you the same thing  Many different theories and different matrixes and features  1977 a new idea came along, that person is Novon  He came up with the idea to present a stimuli of big letters made up of little letters (big stimuli made up of little stimuli)  Two levels of stimuli  One he refers to local level (smaller) and the global level (larger)  If you were a subject in his experiment he tells you that he will present you with a stimuli of this sort and you will have to respond to either the smaller or bigger stimuli and press the button in which the letter is  So if your in a global condition you say the big letter  If your in the local condition you say the smaller letter  If you accumulate the stimulus, the little letters build up to the bigger letters,  He suggests that this is not what happens early on and what happens is a letter with a bloby thing around it and over time you get a more focused blob and it will continue until the blob becomes in focus Called global to local theory   The identity of the bigger letters are made early on then the little letters identity comes after this is the opposite of the older theory which was that the little letters came first then the bigger letters after  Why is this clever; it is like the stoop experiment in which the word colour is in a different colour then it is
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