Psychology 2115A/B Lecture Notes - Biological Neural Network, Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential, Membrane Potential

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
Department
Chapter 2 Review: Physiology
By the end of this section you should know about:
- Action potentials
- Basic neural circuitry
- Excitation and inhibition
- Receptive fields
- Sensory coding theories
Neurons
Specialized cells for reception, conductions and transmission of electrochemical signals
Neurons: Basic Anatomy
Dendrites: receivers of information from other neurons
o Comes in the form of electricity from another neuron
o Neurons connected dendrite to axon and the information flows
End part of the axon axon terminal/axon button
o Holds all the neurotransmitters that will transmit the signals
o The receptor: a specific neuron type that is specialized to respond to specific environmental
stimuli (e.g. light receptors = rods, cones)
o Figure 2.5 of text each receptor is specialized to transmit a specific type of environmental
energy into electivity (vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste)
What’s a “Potential”?
Membrane potential: the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell
o The membrane of a neuron maintains an electrical gradient difference in electrical charge
between inside and outside
Resting potential: -70 mV
o In the absence of any outside disturbance, the membrane maintains an electrical polarization or
charge. The outside of the neuron is slightly negative with respect to the inside mainly because
of the negatively charged proteins inside the cell.
Potential: difference in charge from one to another
o Neurons are lightly charged all of the time
o The outside of the neuron is more negative than the inside
o Neurons are never happy doing nothing always randomly firing off always have a little bit of
random activity
Cell Membrane is Selectively Permeable
The neuron separates positive from negative charges
Each neuron is bounded by a membrane separating the intracellular and extracellular fluids, both of
which contain ions (atoms bearing an electrical charge)
We are only interested in 2 kinds of ions: positively charged ions and negatively charged ions.
o Inside the axon, there is a higher concentration of negative ions, making it negative overall
inside.
o Outside the axon, there is a higher concentration of positive ions, making it positive on the
outside.
o The membrane of the axon will not let some ions pass through (large positive ions).
The neuron likes to separate out the different charges by creating a membrane
o The membrane is selectively permeable allows some things in and keeps other things out
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Document Summary

By the end of this section you should know about: Specialized cells for reception, conductions and transmission of electrochemical signals. Dendrites: receivers of information from other neurons: comes in the form of electricity from another neuron, neurons connected dendrite to axon and the information flows. Membrane potential: the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell: the membrane of a neuron maintains an electrical gradient difference in electrical charge between inside and outside. In the absence of any outside disturbance, the membrane maintains an electrical polarization or charge. The outside of the neuron is slightly negative with respect to the inside mainly because of the negatively charged proteins inside the cell. The neuron separates positive from negative charges. Each neuron is bounded by a membrane separating the intracellular and extracellular fluids, both of which contain ions (atoms bearing an electrical charge)

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