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Lecture 3

Lecture 3.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2115A/B

Lecture three 9/17/2012 11:24:00 AM QUIZ next Wednesday!! „People report taboo words slower than normal words‟  Perceptual defense: less willing to report an offensive word, and the taboo words are going to be less frequent then other words (example apple)  Confounded variable- an extraneous variable that caries concomitantly with the independent variable o Just because we have this variable does not mean that it has an effect, we don‟t what has an effect. o It may cause the effect, but unsure o We cant conclude that the independent variable had an effect because there is a confounded variable o Example: the amount of ice cream sales effects the amount of drowning‟s- confound variable is the temperature, more ice cream sales happen in the warmer weather, more people swim in warm weather, therefore more people drown „Does frequency matter?‟  there are many variables that effect high and low frequency words ( they are short, easier to pronounce etc.)  Salomon Postman (1925) o He doesn‟t use real words, he uses no words o Some non words were presented 25x o Some were presented less 1x o Make up 7 letter non words o Method of limits style, presented 10ms,20ms,30ms o Results: frequency does matter o Higher frequency=lower threshold (didn‟t take them as long to recite) o ID DOES change the threshold Goldiamond and Hawkins (1958)  Experiment: same experiment as above except that there words were three letter not seven  They then ran threshold task- instead they flashed light 10ms, then 20ms, 30ms, 40ms- people then start to report things that aren‟t there, so that they don‟t feel stupid, the experimenter waits until they say a certain one of there words that were previously studied  Produced the same results as 1925 o Caused by subject bias- the words that they studied more frequently are the ones that they guessed  Bias play a major role in experiments- especially when trying to see what people perceive  How do we do the experiment without bias o Tone experiment: there either is a tone or there is not.  After every trial, did you hear it or did you not?  4 things that can happen, there is a tone or there isn‟t one, and you say there is one or you say there isn‟t one  YES NO YES hit miss NO False alarm Correct rejection
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