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Lecture 14

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2115A/B
Professor
Prof
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 14 Auditory Attention Introspection William James  Influenced by introspect ideas at this time  Suggested that attention is a process by which we pick out something in the environment, and bring it forward, letting everything else fall to the background  Attention is something that you can apply to one thing - Ex. Can only spend 100 here OR 100 there  Started it (kicked off) then fell of the map because Behaviourism took over - Was pushed to the side only until the 1950’s when the behaviorists were no longer in control  Broadbent- we stopped thinking as attention as an all or none thing, and more as a capacity thing - Can attend to more than one thing, but everything else you can not attend to - Ex. Can spend 50 here and 50 here Automatic process: things that do not need attention don’t need capacity - Ex. Here your name, you can process it very well, essentially automatic, you do not need to be attending to what someone is saying to understand what they are saying Broadbent  Lived in England (oxford)  Take a simple processing model - A stimulus has to go through a perception process, that yields are result in short term memory  SPERCEPTIONSTM  If you don’t attend to something in your short term memory, you will lose it  If it falls out, you can rehearse it (recycle it)  Is there an attention capacity before STM? (Attend to a stimulus before it hits your short term memory  Cocktail party phenomenon- there is a lot of auditory stimuli out there, but you have the ability to ignore most of it, you can shift your attention to whatever you want (the person in front of you, or the person across the room) - Many people think that this phenomenon is when you here your name across a room even when you are not attending to them  Broadbent wanted to know how the cocktail party phenomenon worked, what aspects allow you to do this? There are different cues that he though contributed to this: - Location: where its coming from - Intensity: soft or loud - Voice differences: differences in pitch in an individuals voice - Semantic differences: what are they talking about?  May listen to what you are more interested in  Ex. Place to TV’s on top of one another with different things playing on it- you can attend to the one you are more interested in  How do you make sure the person is listening to what you want them to listen to? - Location is important Collin Cherry  Invented a situation where people had headphones with different messages in each ear  This is called Dichotic listening  Tell the participant to repeat back to me the message word for word – called shadowing o Used to make sure the person is listening to what you want them to Broadbent- Early Selection Model  Would play a story and you were asked to shadow it  coming through in one ear (left or right)  He wondered could you hear what is coming in the unattended ear? Is it being transferred into the STM or are things being stopped at the level of perception? o He started to play the tape backwards, o Change the language of the speech  When these things happened, people had no idea that they had be done o Change the gender of the speaker  Some people got this o When he played tones (bell noises)  Most people hear this  Concluded that things coming in the unattended ear, did not make it to the STM o You could pick up on dramatic change (like a gun going off)  Conclusion: at the level of perception, we filter out the stuff that we are not attending to Broadbent- next experiment  Presented stimuli to people in a dichotic listening but not shadowing experiment  Present three digit is each ear (left ear 3,7,4 and the right ear 1,5,8) o 2 Conditions on how you report:  Report by time of arrival  By ear (left or right)  If you want to listen to one ear, in order to do that you have to filter out the things on the right o Ex to perceive 1 on the right side, filter our what is coming in on the other side  If they were told to report by ear, they would a filter on the opposite side, and then remove the filter and perceive the other side o Thought that you will do well o 65% of the trials were perceived as perfect
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