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Lecture 12

Lecture 12.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2115A/B

Speech Perception 11/7/2012 1:42:00 PM  when people are talking there are no obvious breaks  unless people are pausing when they talk  it is also vary fast How do we produce speech  you need air coming from your lungs to hit the vocal cords  it gathers behind the vocal cords, and when the air pressure is high enough, the vocal cords part releasing air, causing vibration  the frequency can be modulated-you can make different sounds  sound leaves through your mouth and your nose  when air gets to the vocal tract, it runs into the articulators (teeth, tongue, lips)  we need to understand that we have to divide sounds into two types: vowels and consonants Vowels  when you describe vowel sounds, they are described in two dimensions  this is the part and position of the tongue being used o they are continuous  FRONT MIDDLE BACK HIGH ‘ee’ sound in ‘Ay’ sound in ‘oo’ sound in beet mary hoot MEDUIM ‘eh’ sound it ‘uh’ sound in ‘Oh’ sound in ate sofa boat LOW ‘ah’ sound in ‘Uh’ sound in ‘Awh’ sound in bat but pot Consonants  dimensions: o 1. Voicing  voiced- vibration of the vocal cords (bat)  unvoiced- no vibration (pat) o 2. manner of articulation  stop consonants: stopping air and then letting it out  airflow is completely interrupted  fricatives:  forcing the air between your teeth or your lips (vat)  Nasal:  air passes only through the nose (mmm)  glides:  change in the mouth  air passes through the oral tract (ee)  tongue changes as you produce it  3. places of articulations o position of the tongue  Alveolar  labial  Phoneme o People with accents have slight difference in there phonemes o The sound ‘th’ is not common in the rest of the world o can usually trace everything to European decent or Latin – but not ‘th’ o Japanese speakers have troubles with there ‘r’ and ‘l’  both are produces in a similar way o smallest sound unit in the language  speech should be classifiable by sound o time, intensity, frequency are all dimensions of sound o you can use these to describe any sound you here  consider a telephone ringing o you need to create a graph that has a third dimension o how do we do this?  Plot time against frequency  And reflect intensity by how dark the graph is the darker the lines on the graph the more intense the sound  The graph has 4 clusters of intensity called formants  Back in the olden days On the phone you cut of the top two formants  why someone’s voice sounded different  The bottom two formants are really all you need o Speech tends to be between 200-5000 HZ o And object has a certain frequency that is like to vibrate at  if you get it at that particular point, it will stay there o The frequency that your vocal cords or what’s in your mouth like, are enhanced and that is what comes out as speech  Spectrographs: o The device o You speak into the device and the graph that is produced is the frequencies that are enhanced from your speech o Spectrograms are what it produces o The steady state of the formants (in the middle) is the vowel sound within the word o Vowels are track able, but constants don’t behave this way o Consonant are what happen at the beginning and end of the formants, the are more often than not transitions (moving int
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