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Psych 2115 oct 28.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2115A/B

Psych 2115 Lecture Oct 28 The other component of space perception is perception of direction ("people on my right/ people on my left.. if I want to go there I have to orient myself that way") People have spent a lot of time trying to figure out how people re-orient themselves when they have directed themselves the wrong way (glasses with prisms on them, changes the orientation of your vision, you think things are in different places, when they reach for an object and they realize it is not in the place they thought, they are good at reorienting themselves to find the object) One subject- put prism glasses on him that turned the world upside down, he made mistakes at first but then he adapted and re-learned new directions. Then take the prisms off and the world is messed up Audition Someone yells your name, you move in that direction, what aspects of the stimulus exists to allow you to orient yourself this way? Things people refer to as being "cues" for direction of auditory stimulus: 1. Time of arrival: Something on your right makes a noise, it will get to your right ear before your left, theres an initial time of arrival difference 2. Loudness differences: Something on your right, the path of sound waves is direct to your right ear so you get a nice loud stimulus, the sound waves have to travel around your head and are indirect so you get differences in loudness (very useful cues). More useful for things with high frequency tone, the ear that gets the loud shot - but the tone frequency sound wave is moving so quickly that it just slides past the other ear 3. Phase differences: When a sound comes from one side, it will be at a different phase when it reaches the far ear, this difference helps you localize where the tones are. With this, this cue works very well for low frequency. The phase differences between high frequency sounds are ambiguous, for low frequency tones it's easy to tell because the waves are bigger. This is the end of space perception, moving on to object perception. These two things are often talked about together because they tend to work on the same principles. Pretty intertwined. What do we need to perceive an object? Contour: objects have contours, a contour is a place in the retinal information at which theres an abrupt change in retinal illuminance. We have a set of colours our retina is comunicating to our brain, then theres an abrupt change in the retinal illuminance, then we will see a contour. On your retina there are spots picking up the dark on either side of the while chalk (the chalkboard), then picking up with bright white. If blue and red are equated in their lightness, you wont see a contour- you need an abrupt change in intensity. You need contour to keep you visual system working. Ganzefeld - (check this) a contour-less world. Take a ping pong ball, cut it in half, one half on each eye, make sure theres light behind it and no one walking around. If you do this for a while your visual system kinda shuts off. Snow blindness- your visual system just gets disinterested. We also need changing contours. Your eyes are always moving to some degree, when you glance across the room your eyes are jumping from side to side, therefore the contours in front of your eyes are always changing. If you're told to focus on something and not look anywhere else, you can stop your eyes from jumping but they will drift because they want those contours to be changing - there are these contact lenses that have the object on an arm from the lens, so when your eye drifts it drifts too and stays at the exact same sp
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