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Psych 2115 lec Nov 27.docx

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Psychology 2115A/B

Psych 2115 Lecture November 27, 2013 Last time: Question of where does attention work in the visual system? It's only at a higher level where attention starts to matter Sensory memory has to be taken into account, "perception isn’t a capacity limited thing, it just happens, the attention stuff happens later on" - his ideas were wrong because he didn’t take into account sensory memory (sp… some name?) like Deutsch and Deitchs Gardner 1973, publication. Instead of people asking simple questions they asked complicated questions. Gardner wanted to say Deutsch and deutch were right and that we do perceive everything… why did Taylors experiment work then (adding things to display makes processing more difficult)? He felt that when you perceive something you get information/ representation, you still have to do something with it.. decide what it is, referred to it as the decision process, said people haven’t been taking the decision process into account (1), is there a T in there? You have to make the decision process… you see all the stimuli and you have to decide if you see a T, which one is the T. When you have to evaluate all the things, some times you pick the wrong one (make your crucial decision) You make errors because you decide about the wrong location on the display. If you increase the number of items, you increase the probability that you will make the wrong decision. Harder to make decisions about 15 things than 2. Explains taylors results in the terms of the decision process: the perceptuon isn’t more difficult as you get more things in the display… it’s the decision process that is more difficult It all happens automatically and its only later in the system that we get limitations (agrees with D & D) Is there any validity to this? (2) Experiment: 4 things are as easy to perceive as 1, but you have to make 4 decisions and that is harder. First condition: say if theres a T or F in the display, he measured whether you were right or not (didn’t measure reaction time), used very brief display so that people make mistakes. T or F in the corner of the display, 1 perception, 1 decision, easy condition Third condition: make people have to make 4 decisions, made T-F hybrids- 4 things to perceive, 4 things to decide on. This is the hard condition. 10ms display, 40% right, how do you get 40% on a two choice test? Listen to your subjects that say "neither a T or F is in the display". They turned it into a 3 choice test, even though there was no display that had neither. Condition 2: 4 things to perceive so we can contrast the perception agains 3, but 1 decision to make so we can constrast against 3 Filled oher corners with O's; we have other things to perceive, but we don’t have decisions to make, they wont distract you, so you only have 1 decision to make. Percpetually harder than 1, but only one decision so its equivalent to 1 if decision making is the bottleneck process. 10ms display= 80% correct Pointed the field in a slightly different direction; showed that the nature of the stimuli that you use and the nature of the task has a real impact on how your data will come out Gardner launches a new modern day thinking, another person who can also be credited for the new way of thinking is Nicer (1967) Exp: Gave people long lists of letters and said "find the Z in here" or "is there a Z in here". Showed if you are looking for a Z (edge character) in a set of letters which are mainly similar types of letters (W, X, etc) its hard, as opposed to a background of curvy letters (O, C, Q). Theres a discrimination process that’s going on that says you don’t have to fully perceive some stimuli to reject them and know it's not what you're looking for. Don’t perceive a C any faster, but you and reject it on a basis of partial perception. The early parts of pereption may happen automatically without any capacity limitations, but it's the later parts of perception that allow you to finish there story and you do need attention for those. Gondias and Gliton (?) (1972) presented stimuli, asked people to make a decision. Dependent variable = reaction time. (3) Subjects had to be given a target letter, and press a yes button or no button when asked if
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